Part II. July to December, 1849.

" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science, in different parts of Asia will commit their observations to writing-, and send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will langujshif such communications shall be long" inter- mitted ; and it will die away if they^tJSUi enl^^cease."— Sir Wm, Jones.




Aborigines of the Eastern Frontier, On the. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., .... 967 Catalogue of Birds in the Asiatic Society's Museum, a Supplemental Note to

the. By E. Blyth, Esq., 800

Colossal Jain Figure nearly 80 feet high, (Description of a) cut in relief, dis- covered on a spur of the Satpurah Range, on the Nurbudda. By Dr. Impey, 918 Embankments of Rivers, (On the,) and on the Nature of Overflowing Rivers

in Diluvial Plains. By Capt. J. D. Cunningham, 697

Fac-similes of Coins, On preparing, By J. W. Laidlay, Esq., 976

Financial Report, 860

Influence of Forests on Climate, On the. By Lieut. W. H. Parish, 791

Kocch, Bodo and Dhimal Tribes, On the Origin, Location, Numbers, Creed,

Customs, Character and Condition of the. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., .. 702 Land and Fresh Water Shells occurring in Afghanistan, Notices of some. By

Capt. T. Hutton, 649

Law of Storms in India, (An Eighteenth Memoir on the) being the Cyclone of the 12th to 14th Oct. 1848, in the Bay of Bengal. By H. Piddington,

Esq., 826 869

Limits of Perpetual Snow, Note on the. By Capt. J. D. Cunningham, .... 694

Malayan Fishes, Catalogue of. By Dr. T. Cantor, 983

Meteorological Register for July, 759

for Aug 866

for Sept., 987

Native Impressions regarding the Natural History of certain animals, On.

By H. Torrens, Esq., 788

Pind Dadan Khan and the Salt Range, Diary of a Trip to. By Andrew Flem- ing, Esq. M. D., 661

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, for July 1849, 754

forAug.1849, 858

for Sept. 1849, 97#tf

Physical Geography of the Himalayas, On the. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq.,.. 761 Revenues of States beyond the Sutlej, about 1750 to 1800, Sketch of the

Recorded. By Major W. Anderson, C. B., 822

Snow line in the Himalaya, Remarks on the. By Capt. Thomas Hutton, ., 954



Page Anderson, Major W. Sketch of the Recorded Revenues of the States be- yond the Sutlej, about 1750 to 1800, 822

Blyth, E. Esq. A Supplemental Note to the Catalogue of the Birds in the

Museum of the Asiatic Society, , 800

Cantor, Dr. Theodore. Catalogue of Malayan Fishes, 983

Cunningham, Capt. J. D. Note on the Limits of Perpetual Snow in the

Himalayas, 694

On the Embankments of Rivers, 697

Fleming, Dr. Andrew. Diary of a Trip to Pind Dadan Khan, &c 661

Hutton, Capt. Thomas. Notices of some Land and Fresh Water Shells

occurring in Afghanistan, 649

■■ . Remarks on the Snow Line in the Himalaya, .... 954

Hodgson, B. H. Esq. On the Origin, &c. of the Kocch, Bodo, and Dhimal

Tribes 702

On the Physical Geography of the Himalayas, .... 761

On the Aborigines of Eastern Frontier, 967

Impey, Dr. Description of a Colossal Jain Figure nearly 80 feet high, cut

in relief, discovered on a spur of the Satpurah Range, 918

Laidlay, J. W. Esq. On preparing Fac-similes of Coins, &c, 976

Parish, Lieut. W. H. On the Influence of Forests on Climate, 791

Piddington, H. Esq. An Eighteenth Memoir on the Law of Storms in

India, , 826 869

Torrens, H. Esq. On Native Impressions regarding the Natural History

of certain Animals, 788




JULY, 1849.

Notices of some Land and Fresh Water Shells occurring in Afghanis* than. By Capt. Thomas Hutton.

. The following brief notices refer to the Land and Fresh Water Shells procured during the advance of the Army of the Indus into Afghanis- tan in 1839. These of course were collected along the line traversed from Dadur in Cutch Gundava, to Girishk on the Helmund, but it is by no means intended to restrict the Afghan species to the few herein mentioned, for with the exception of the slight attention which my duties occasionally enabled me to pay to the subject, the country was literally unsearched. Some of the species noticed are scarcely determined to my satisfaction, but in the absence of European speci- mens to compare with them, it was impossible to do more than hazard a conjecture.

Class. 1 . Gasteropoda.

Fam HELiciDiE. 1. Parmacellus rutellum, (Hutton.)

Animal a bright gamboge yellow, with 4 tentacula, posterior portion of the body, behind the shell, carinated ; shield strengthened internally with a shovel-shaped shell of a pearly or nacreous appearance; obtuse and globose at the apex, with a deep sinus ; covered with a thin transparent epidermis, transversely wrinkled by the lines of growth ; colour white ; length £ inch ; breadth about J inch.

No. XXXI.— New Series. 4 p

650 Notices of some Land and Fresh Water Shells [Jvly,

Found at Candahar in April, crawling along the sides of damp ditches in the fields ; not rare, though apparently local, and only comes out about sunset. It is a true Parmacellus of Rang.

2. Vitrina baccata (Hutton).

This very minute species was found under stones, along the bank of a dry nullah or river bed, at a place called Melmandeh, between the Kojuck Pass and Candahar. It appeared to be very scarce, as after a lengthened search only three specimens were found, and of these unfortunately the animals died before an opportunity occurred for ex- amining them.

Shell small, thin, fragile, diaphanous and pale ; whorls apparently only one, or at all events the body whorl may be said to constitute the whole shell ; aperture nearly circular, lips scarcely interrupted, slightly thickened and partially reflected ; surface of the shell polished, finely striated by minute lines of growth, and ornamented with longitudinal bead-like lines or strings of minute bubbles, which can be seen only under a strong lens. Upper side depressed, flattened ; under side round- ed, ventricose. Length 1^ lines.

3. Helix Candaharica (Pfr.).

Animal pale straw colour ; darkish or dusky on the tentacula ; foot not protruding posteriorly beyond the shell, and rather tapering.

Shell much depressed above, orbicular, slightly convex ; spire scarce- ly exserted, whorls 5 ; colour fuscous or sandy white, ornamented above with a broad longitudinal band of reddish or purplish brown ; often breaking into dots where interrupted by the stria? of increase ; whorls shining and obliquely striate ; aperture ovato -lunate, somewhat oblique ; peristome acute, with a thickened rib within the aperture in mature shells ; deeply and widely umbilicate, exposing the penultimate whorl and extending nearly to the apex ; under side ornamented with narrow dotted or interrupted longitudinal bands of reddish brown, varying much in number from one to six ; diameter of largest specimen t6q of an inch ; though the generality do not exceed half an inch.

This is a very variable species in regard to colouring, some individuals having the bands well denned, others having them faint and narrow, and some wanting them altogether, in which case the shell is of a faint fuscescent white with dark apex.

1849-] occurring in Afghanisthan. 651

At first sight it bears a strong resemblance to the European Helix virgata (Montagu) vel variabilis of authors ; the broad bands of the coloured individuals, and the colouring of the unhanded ones, being very similar to that shell. It is however readily distinguishable from it by the more flattened form, and by the greater tendency to exhibit bands on the under side ; while the umbilicus, being invariably more open and showing a greater portion of the lower whorls, is of itself a sufficiently distinctive character.

In the fields of Lucerne and Clover, as also in gardens and orchards, this snail is very abundant ; it appears to have the habit of clustering together when at rest, in great numbers, a singular trait, which is also observable in the Helix virgata. In the end of September, I observed them "in coitu," individuals of all colours freely intermixing. The aperture is occasionally closed by a thin viscous plate. Although so extremely common at Candahar, that hundreds might have been collected within a few hours, the species would still appear to be re- markably local, for neither at Quettah on the one hand, not at Girishk on the other, did I meet with a single specimen.

This shell, discovered by me on the arrival of Shah Shoojah's army at Candahar in the end of April 1839, has been named and described in the Magazine of Natural History, Vol. XVIII. p. 123, by Dr. L. PfehTer from specimens in the collection of H. Cuming, Esq. furnished by Mr. Benson, who received them in all probability from myself. 4. Helix Bactriana (Hutton).

Animal straw coloured, with the superior tentacula very long and black ; shell carried obliquely horizontal ; foot short and rather tapering posteriorly.

Shell fuscous or pale earthy brown, but varying to reddish brown, and in some to sandy ; in living specimens dotted over with darker spots or blotches, from the animal being apparent through it ; subglo- bose ; spire obtuse, scarcely exserted ; whorls 6 ; aperture ovato-lunate, oblique ; whorls obliquely and finely wrinkled with the striae of growth ; peristome acute, pillar lip partially reflected over the umbilicus ; a strong white rib within the aperture, showing usually a rufous band externally ; umbilicus moderate, exposing a portion of the penultimate whorl. Dia- meter T6^ of an inch. Some have a pale line along the periphery of the body whorl, which is slightly angular.

4 p 2

652 Notices of some Land and Fresh Water Shells [July,

This is likewise very numerous at Candahar, in gardens and fields, adhering by a thin viscous plate to the stalks of plants ; it occurs also abundantly among dead leaves beneath rose bushes, and at the roots of the garden Iris and other plants ; sometimes buried in holes in the earth.

It appears to be closely allied to the three British shells, H. Can- tiana (Montagu), H. Carthusiana (Gray), and H. Rufescens (Penn), more especially to the latter, which it strongly resembles in colouring, the angularity of the periphery and the blotches of darker colour seen through the shell when the animal is living. In size perhaps it comes nearest the former, as well as in general appearance, but it is less glo- bose in the spire, and the peristome is more reflected. 5. Succinea putris, (Gray.)

There is really nothing to distinguish the Afghan from the Euro- pean species ; the colour, number of whorls, size and shape appear to be quite the same. The animal likewise seems to be in all respects the same. The eyes are situated at the extremity of the superior ten- tacula, which are cylindrical and buttoned ; the second pair diminutive and scarcely apparent ; the whole animal is mottled minutely with grey, and several fine grey lines extend backwards from the upper part of the head. It is very common in garden drains, and in marsh lands along the course of the river Helmund at Girishk. 6. Succinea Pfeiferi (Rossm.).

This is apparently another European species, closely allied to, and by some supposed to be only a variety of the foregoing. It has a much shorter spire than the other and the aperture is more elongate.

It occurs plentifully in garden drains at Candahar, but did not ap- pear to mix with the foregoing, and I should be much inclined to re- gard them as distinct species. 7. Pupa lapidaria (Hutton).

Animal dusky.

Shell composed of 7 cylindrical volutions, exclusive of apex ; the three first whorls rapidly decreasing and producing an obtuse spire ; the other whorls nearly equal ; colour brown ; finely wrinkled with ob- lique striae of growth ; aperture ovato-quadrate ; lips subreflected, polished and white within ; sub-umbilicate ; furnished with eight teeth, two on the pillar within, four on the outer lip within, all of which are

1849.] occurring in Afghanisthan. 653

visible on the back of the whorl in four pale bands, giving that part a furrowed appearance ; and two others on the interrupted part of the peristome, the inner one, which is indeed quite within the aperture, be- ing the largest of all, and the other one small and placed at the angle of the outer lip. Length J inch.

This pretty little species was discovered under stones among blocks of limestone bordering the desert plain of Dusht-i-be-dowlut, at the western end of the Bolan Pass. It is very closely allied to the Eng- lish species Pupa Juniperi (Gray), having the teeth arranged much in the same manner ; those of the body whorl giving rise externally to the same furrowed or ribbed appearance. It differs however, in having only seven whorls instead of 8 or 9, and in having the largest tooth placed well within the aperture on the middle of the body whorl. 8. Pupa spelcea (Hutton).

Shell composed of eight convex whorls ; 9J lines in length, of which nearly one half is occupied by the body whorl ; closely and coarsely striated by the lines of increase ; polished, nude, ventricose ; aperture ovato- quadrate ; lips slightly reflected ; subumbilicate ; spire suddenly tapering ; obtuse ; colour white with darker dashes ; the markings however cannot properly be termed colours, since they are in reality only streaks in sculpture, caused by the unequal thickness of the shell, which exhibits alternately an opaque and a semitransparent layer of increase. Pillar lip straight ; the outer one bending suddenly in on the body whorl. Found adhering to the inside of fissures and caves at Dusht-i-be-dowlut, and in the Bolan Pass. 9. Pupa indica (Benson's Mss.).

P. cylindrica (Hutton), J. A. S. Vol. III. p. 85, No. 6.

This common Indian species, first described and named by me in 1834, runs into three remarkable varieties, differing so much in size and shape that it would not surprise me to find eventually that they are distinct. The name originally bestowed by me has been abandoned in consequence of its being pre-occupied, and Mr. Benson having pro- posed, from the wide range of the species, to call it P. Indica, that name has been adopted. The large variety has 9 to 10 whorls ; is cylindriform and tapers suddenly to an obtuse apex ; colour of living shells pale fuscous or earthy, but generally white ; whorls closely wrinkled by coarse waving lines of increase ; in fresh specimens faintly

654 Notices of some Land and Fresh Water Shells [July,

scored with obsolete longitudinal furrows ; shell nude, polished, thick and opaque. Aperture subquadrate, margins thickened and subre- flected ; varying from \\ to if inches in length. Animal dusky ; ovo-viviparous. Buries itself in the earth beneath rocks, trees, &c. stopping the aperture with a thin plate of hardened viscous matter.

Var. A. This is in all respects a perfect miniature of the foregoing, but it seems never to have more than eight whorls, and seldom exceeds ^ an inch in length ; it is far less ventricose, and generally shows the obsolete longitudinal furrows more plainly. This variety occurs both in India and near Quettah in Afghanisthan.

Var. B. With the general sculpture of the last, but shorter, seldom exceeding T?-g- of an inch ; whorls ventricose and spire more suddenly obtuse than either of the foregoing ; with scarcely more than half the length of P. Indica, it still rivals it in breadth, and the longitudinal furrows appear to be constant and better denned. Whorls usually seven in number, rarely eight.

The exuviae of all three may be seen in abundance scattered over the sands of the Bhawulpore district.

10. Pupa ccenopicta, (Hutton,) J. A. S. Vol. III. p. 85, No. 7.

Animal blackish.

Shell cylindrico-pyramidal, with 6 whorls, minutely striate ; body whorl ventricose, the others gradually tapering to an obtuse apex ; aperture ovato-lunate ; lips subreflected and white within ; a single tooth at the junction of the outer lip with the body whorl ; colour brown. Length T\ inches.

In living specimens the shell is often painted over with a coating of mud, which assimilates it so much to the colour of the rocks it inhabits, as to render it difficult of detection. It was discovered by me in 1832 adhering to the face of a bare rock at Beeana near Agra, and again at Neemuch in 1834, adhering to the bricks of a ruined temple. Mr. Benson has likewise taken it beneath stones at Delhi, but in such situa- tions it is destitute of its coating of mud.

It occurred in Afghanistan beneath stones at Dusht-i-be-dowlut.

In the single tooth at the angle of the mouth, it makes an approach to Pupa umbilicata, (Gray) of England, but it differs altogether in shape ; in being larger, less abruptly obtuse and more tapering.

1849. J occurring in Afghanisthan. 655

Fresh Water Shells.

Fam. Paludinidve. 1 1 . Paludina parvula, (Hutton.)

Animal dusky grey.

Shell convid, of four whorls exclusive of apex ; colour of epidermis dull or dusky green ; aperture ovate, rounded below, angular above ; oblique ; operculum horny ; subumbilicate, pillar lip partially reflected ; sutures deep ; epidermis of the upper whorls usually eroded ; trans- versely striated by fine lines of growth. Length T\ of an inch, or less.

Inhabits a marshy patch of ground caused by a spring oozing from the side of the Kojuck Pass, at Chummun.

Fam. Limn^ead^.

12. Limncea peregra, (Lam.)

This so closely resembles one of the varieties of the European shell, that I can see no good reason for separating it. On comparing it with an English specimen long since presented to me by Mr. Benson, no character appears to authorize the idea of its being other than a mere variety, and the differences, where any exist, are nothing more than the variations usually observable in a series of specimens. In fact the only difference that I can see, consists in the spire of the Candahar shell being rather more exserted than in the European specimen before me, but in this respect, judging from Gray's figures and description, there is always great variety, and consequently no importance can be attached to it. At Candahar the species was very common in brick tanks, and almost invariably covered with small aquatic plants or incrustations of lime, concealing the colour, and sometimes even the shape of the shell, a fact which is likewise observable in regard to the European species.

Var. A. Low down on the Western side of the Kojuck range of hills, at some distance below the Pass, is a green spot called Chummun, from whence issues a small clear spring of water, which spreading over the slope, forms a marshy patch in which are several species of shells, and among them occurs another variety of Limncea peregra, which living in running water is free from the impurities which attach to the Candahar variety, and the substance of the shell is perhaps somewhat thicker.

656 Notices of some Land and Fresh Water Shells [July,

13. Limncea truncatula (Gray).

L . fossarius (Turton) .

L. minuta (Lam).

Animal grey. This is another European species very common on the marsh lands bordering the river Helmund at Ginshk, as well as in similar situations at the Kojuck Pass and at Quettah.

In Gray's edition of Turton' s British shells, the European shell is stated to be " half an inch long" and to have " six or seven rounded and deeply divided volutions," whereas the largest of the Afghan shells does not exceed 3^ lines, and the whorls are only five in number exclusive of apex. These differences which at first sight might be supposed to indicate distinct species, are however counterbalanced by the fact that the shells of Limncea truncatula are said to be " extremely variable in size and colour, according to the locality in which they are found, and the abundance of their food," and " Mr. Alder observes, that a variety of a much smaller size is found on the margins of rivers, another is found in mountain streams." (Gray's Turton's British shells).

These latter remarks are strictly applicable to the Afghan shell and leave no doubt as to its being one of the varieties of the European species.

Mr. Benson likewise informed me that he had taken still smaller specimens than mine, in Ireland.

14. Limncea Bactriana (Hutton).

Animal mottled black and grey.

Shell small, brittle, T9F of an inch long ; spire loosely and obliquely twisted ; sutures deep, whorls rounded, aperture ovate long ; pillar lip partially reflected ; shell closely striate transversely ; aperture occupy- ing f of the shell ; colour pale greenish brown ; whorls 4.

This shell has very much the appearance of the young of Limncea chlamys (Benson), of the gangetic provinces, but the whorls are more rounded, and the spire more horizontally twisted and less awl-shaped. The size however would alone distinguish i., as the largest do not exceed T9^ of an inch, whereas my Scindh specimens of L. chlamys are 2 inches. The general size of Indian specimens is about 1^ inches.

It occurred in marsh lands and streams at Quettah, in Afghanis- tan.

1849.] occurring in Afghanisthan* 657

15. Planorbis convexiusculus, (Hutton.)

Animal black or dusky.

Shell depressed, } of an inch in diameter ; pale horn colour ; polished ; closely and obliquely striate ; whorls 4 or 5 ; rounded ; future well defined ; periphery subangular, but not influencing the aperture, which is ovato-lunate ; umbilicus wide, discovering all the previous volutions ; the whorls rising gradually and spirally from the horizontal, and rounded below.

Occurs plentifully at Candahar in tanks ; at Quettah and the Kojuck Pass in marshes, and along the marsh lands of the river Helmund at Girishk.

I have lately ascertained that it likewise occurs in the Gangetic pro- vinces, having taken it from a tank at the foot of a range of hills bordering the grand trunk road, at Tope Chancey. I likewise procured it some years ago from mountain streams at Pinjore below Simla, with- out then observing the difference, as I find it in my store boxes mixed up with P. compressus. It differs from that species in wanting the delicate carina on the peryphery, and in having a lunate aperture with- out the angle on the middle of the outer lip ; in being more convex, with rounder whorls : and in having its volutions wound round on a more open and less horizontal twist.*


16. Melania elegans, (Benson.) Gleanings in Science, No. 13 for

1830, p. 22, species C.

This very beautiful species was found in the Bolan Pass at Beebee Nanee, where in April the pebbly bottom of the stream was perfectly alive with them ; yet on my return to India two years afterwards in February, not a single shell was visible, all having burrowed deep into the sand in order to escape from the chilling wintry temperature of the mountains.

The largest specimens procured were 1T% ins. in length, by y'g- ins. wide ; shell turreted, gradually tapering to an acute apex ; each whorl armed with a row of longitudinally raised ribs, tuberculated at the up- per part ; epidermis thin, variously coloured, being sometimes fuscous

* Had I not sent specimens of this shell to Mr. Benson, who pronounced it new, I should from his description have considered it P. umbilicalis (Benson) from Sylhet.

4 Q

658 Notes of some Land and Fresh Water Shells [July,

white, flavescent green, or pale olive green, all being ornamented with purplish or reddish brown flame shaped transverse bands, interrupted and broken into dots by numerous longitudinal furrows, crossed and wrinkled by the lines of growth ; in many specimens the whorls bor- dering the sutures, and the summits of the tubercles are white, which adds greatly to the beauty of the shell ; aperture oblique, subovate, longer than broad ; operculum horny, and deep brown.

This shell is an inhabitant also of our Indian rivers, and was dis- covered by Mr. Benson, several years ago. As it was not found beyond Beebee Nanee in the Bolan Pass, it can scarcely be called an Afghan species, though it may serve perhaps to point out the western limits of its geographical range. 17. Melania pyramis, (Benson.) Gleanings in Science, No. 13 for

1830, p. 22, species B.

This common Indian species occurs plentifully at Dadur in Cutch Gundava, and attains a size and beauty equal to any specimens from the Gangetic Provinces. Leaving Dadur and entering the Bolan Pass we again find it mixed up with the foregoing species at Bebee Nanee, but generally of smaller size and less beautiful in the markings. Pro- ceeding onwards we meet with it at Quettah in a clear stream, though of still smaller size than before ; this last is that variety of the Indian shell which has a well defined longitudinal reddish brown band along the outside of the columellar or pillar lip. In a marshy and semi-stag- nant piece of water at Quettah there is also another variety, large and coarse in sculpture, without markings, and the apex of the spire and epidermis eroded.

As Beebee Nanee appears to be the limit to the range of M. elegans» so Quettah would appear to be the limit of M. pyramis, as I found no trace of it in the streams farther to the westward. 18. Melania tigrina, (Hutton.)

Shell devoid of apex, the spire being invariably much eroded ; gene, ral appearance that of M. pyramis, but differs in being coarser, in wanting the strong and prominent longitudinal furrows which charac- terise that species, and which are observable throughout its length ; the outer lip also lias a tendency to be more produced ; while the flame- shaped streaks of colouring are narrower, closer, and less devious or zigzag, often becoming bifid or pronged on the body whorl ; epidermis

1849.] occurring in Afghanisthan. 659

pale olive green or olive brown, ornamented with close, narrow irregu- lar transverse dashes. General number of whorls in eroded and de- collated specimens, five ; though nine or ten would appear to be the correct number ; wrinkled transversely by coarse lines of increase ; the upper angle of the aperture is never so acute as in M. pyramis, and the sutures are deeper and whorls more tumid at their junction.

Mr. Benson thought this a mere variety of the preceding shell, the differences being induced by a residence in stagnant waters ; this how- ever can scarcely be the case, since in the very same waters, M . pyramis, likewise existed, with a full spire and all its other characteristics ; even in the uncoloured variety of that species which has the apex partially eroded, the longitudinal furrows and general sculpture of the shell still exist to point out its distinctness.

This species is not peculiar to Afghanistan, having been first dis- covered by me in 1836 in a garden tank at Pinjore below Simla. Pin- jore shells of 5 eroded whorls, measure If ins. in length, and are finer than Afghan specimens, which do not exceed If ins., while fully formed individuals of M. pyramis from Dadur and the Gangetic Provinces having 1 2 whorls, measure no more than 1 \ in. This alone would ap- pear to settle the question of distinctness.

Class 2. Conchifera. Lam. Fam. Cyclad^e. 1 9. Pisidium paludosumy (Hutton.)

Shell minute ; £ of an inch in breadth ; T^ in height ; oval ; um- bones rather blunt ; very finely striate transversely ; shining dark olive or dusky green.

Inside whitish.

A single specimen only was taken in the swampy ground at Chum- mun, on the Kojuck range in Afghanistan. 20.— Corbicula ?

I refrain from naming this species, which though much larger, ap- pears identical with one of our Indian shells, because I know that Mr. Benson long since showed specimens to Mr. Gray, and it is therefore more than probable that it has been named already, although unknown to me. It is common in canals at Candahar, and attains a size ex- ceeding any I have seen in the Gangetic Provinces, measuring in my finest specimen 1T\ of an inch in breadth, and one inch in height ; the

4 q 2

660 Notes of some Land and Fresh Water Shells, fyc. [July,

generality however, measure less, being 1TX¥ in. wide and |f in. in height. It is strongly furrowed transversely ; with olive brown epi- dermis and beaks denuded.

Var. A. Also found in the Gangetic Provinces ; smaller than the last, being in breadth -J in. by if in. high, transversely furrowed ; epidermis yellow, or sometimes greenish, half way from the beaks, with a broad yellow border ; inside violet or purple, as in the last, of which this may be the young.

Fam. Unionid^e. 21. Unio marginalis, (Lam.)

Shell oval oblong, ventricose, tumid ; not produced nor attenuated behind ; beaks flattened and denuded ; upper edge rounded or falling ; lower edge curved ; strongly wrinkled transversely ; epidermis olive brown ; in young specimens with broad yellowish margin. Largest specimen measuring lf£ in. long, by 2|f in. broad; another l|f in. by 2i| in. ; and a third measures 1^-f in. long, by 3T^ in. wide.

Occurs at Candahar in canals.

Mr. Benson thought this only a strong variety of U. marginalis of Lamarck, and in deference to his opinion I have so named it ; at the same time I am much inclined to think it distinct, and propose, should it prove so, to call it U. Candaharicus. The differences observable appear to consist in the less produced and lengthened form posteriorly, in the upper part of the anterior edge being straighter and more elevated, than in U. marginalis, and in the beaks being less denuded and more wrinkled.

In XJnio marginalis of the Gangetic provinces, the breadth appears to exceed the length much more considerably than in the Candahar shells, measuring in four specimens of each as follows :

1. Indian specimen. Length 1T6^ in. ; breadth 3T2^ in.

2. Ditto ditto length l\% in. ; breadth 3f in.

3. Ditto ditto length lT\ in. ; breadth 3T2^ in.

4. Ditto ditto length 1^ in ; breadth 3 in.

1. Afghan specimen. Length \°s in. ; breadth 2ff in.

2. Ditto ditto length l|f in. ; breadth 2f£ in.

3. Ditto ditto length lif in. ; breadth 2|f in.

4. Ditto ditto length 1 jf in. ; breadth 3TV in.

The proportions thus appear to be reversed, the Indian species show-

1849.] Trip to Pind Dadud Khan and the Salt Range. 661

ing a greater transverse breadth in proportion to its length ; the Afghan one showing a greater length in proportion to its breadth. All my specimens of the Indian variety are produced or elongated posteriorly, giving the shell a narrow wedge-shaped appearance ; whereas the Afghan one being transversely shorter appears ovate oblong.

Diary of a Trip to Pind Dadud Khan and the Salt Range. By An- drew Fleming, M. D. Assist. Surgeon 7th N. I. on Deputation to Pind Dadud Khan, (Communicated by Sir H. M. Elliot, Sec. Govt, of India.)

March 9th, 1848. Lahore to Pind de das ka kote, 10 kos. Left Lahore this morning, crossed the Ravee and arrived at Pind de das ka kote by 8 a. m., said to be 10 kos from Lahore. A level uninteresting country intervening, in great part uncultivated, except in the proximity of the few wells which are dug, and where crops of a fair appearance are raised. A saline efflorescence of sulphate of soda occurs in great quantity along the whole way, but does not seem to have any injurious effect on the soil, irrigation being apparently all that is required to render it productive of good crops. Four miles from Shah Dera there is a pucka bridge named Pere ka Pool, which spans a nullah, and which is going fast to ruin, but might be repaired at a trifling expense, and would in the rains prove a great comfort to travellers. Within \ a mile of Pind de das ka kote is a fine pucka bridge across a nullah called Bagh Binha, down which at present a considerable stream of water is running, and from which a supply of water to irrigate the neighbouring country might be obtained, were means for raising it available. Some zemindars came to complain that Pertaub Sing and followers had been here 4 days before and cut green corn for their horses to the value of Rs. 8, without giving the proprietors any remune- ration. Directed injured parties to proceed to Lahore to obtain redress. Supplies obtained in abundance, and water good within 5 or 6 feet of surface.

March 10£A. From Pind de dass ka kote to Santipore, 10 kos. From Pind de das ka kote marched to Santipore, a distance said to be 9 kos, but certainly more. Road level, the intervening country being much of the same character as in preceding march, and wells even

662 Trip to Rind Badud Khan and the Salt Range. [July,

scarcer, but where these exist good crops are raised around them. Passed Wudala and Shechem, two considerable sized villages, around which good rich crops of wheat and barley were growing. Around Santipore there is a good deal of kunkur in the soil, which at a little dis- tance from the village is covered with a low dwarf jungle of Caper bushes. Supplies in abundance, water good, though 15 or 20 feet from surface.

March llth. Santipore to Muttooy 9 kos. From Suntipore to Mut- too, a distance of 9 kos, the road leads through a level country covered with low bush jungle, in the centre of which however occasional fields of wheat and barley are to be seen, where enterprising individuals have dug wells and cleared away the jungle from their neighbourhood. On the way here passed the villages of Retalee, Vernala and Khan Mussel- man. Water good though about 23 or 30 feet from surface, and raised by Persian wheels, which seem universal in this part of the country.

March \2th. Muttoo to Oodeewala,\0 kos. Marched fromMuttoo to Oodeewalla, a distance of 10 kos. General appearance of the country improved, crops being richer, and the fields studded with Babool trees of considerable size. Patches of sugarcane and remains of cotton plantations observed round the villages, Lulla and Thabul being the only ones of any size near the road. Kunkur exists in considerable quantity around this village, where the water is good about 20 feet from surface, and supplies abundant.

March \2>th. Oodeewalla to Ramnuggur, 10 or 12 kos. From Oo- deewalla to Ramnuggur the distance is said to be 10 kos, but is cer- tainly much more. The intervening country, where cultivation does not exist, is covered with a short coarse grass and is quite level. Noe- walla and Akalgurh are the only two villages of any size that occur in this march. The latter is a place of some size, several fine gardens existing in its neighbourhood, where the crops are rich and fields well dressed. Kunkur occurs in great quantity around Akalgurh, where the road was completely under water in consequence of recent rain. Three miles beyond this, is Ramnuggur, a town of considerable size. Put up in the Bara-derry, around which some Seikh Artillery are sta- tioned under the command of Col. Lookha Sing, who paid me a visit. There is a salt depot close to the Bara-derry, where at present 10,000 maunds of salt are accumulated. It is brought on camels from the salt mines, the owners of which receive 4 annas per maund that is deli-

1849.] Trip to Pind Dadud Khan and the Salt Range. 663

vered at the depot. It is all weighed previously to being stored up, and is retailed to merchants at Rs. 2-4 per maund. The thanadar and Kardar of this place accompanied me through the depot and paid me every attention. The Chenab is distant about 2 miles from this place a flat and in great part uncultivated country intervening.

March \Ath. Ramnuggur to Phalia, 12 kos. From Ramnuggur crossed the Chenab, which is easily effected, the boats being large and in good order, and marched to Phalia, said to be 10 kos, but is certain- ly more. The Chenab seems to have a considerable depth of water in its channel, but is evidently swollen at present in consequence of recent rains in the hills. On the north bank of the river, and from thence to Phalia, the country is richly cultivated and interspersed with numerous babool and bur trees, which attain a considerable size. On the side of the road are situated the villages of Remmuhl, Pagut, Truka and Kumina. Phalia is a small place, but has a mud fort in its interior. Around it there is a deal of bush jungle, where kunkur occurs in great quantity. At night heavy rain fell and continued falling until 5 a. m.

March \5th, Phalia to Phukie, 7 kos. Had directed my servants to go on to Hurrin, but in consequence of the rain, they could not pro- ceed farther than Phukie, a march of about 7 kos. The road leads through a thick bush jungle, and so is very heavy in consequence of the rain during the night. Phukie is but a small place supplies ob- tained in abundance, but water very bad and brackish, evidently con- taining a quantity of saline matter. Cultivation to a very small extent exists around this village. Ruttiwall is a village of considerable size on the road to this place.

March 16th. Phukie to Hurrin, 6 kos. In consequence of rain which fell incessantly from midnight till 8 a.m. was unable to march further than Hurrin, where I found my tent pitched, my servants being unable to get on to Mianee as I had intended. The whole country was under water and the crops completely levelled to the ground in many places. A very dense jungle intervenes between Phukie and Hurrin, where the country is more open and well cultivated, being situated about a mile from the Jhelum, along the banks of which a dense jungle of Tamarisk occurs. The river Jhelum is much flooded and appears a noble river running at the foot of the salt range, which is only about 4 miles from it, a rich wooded Kadir land apparently intervening. Sup-

664 Trip to Pind Badud Khan and the Salt Range. [July,

plies abundant. Complaints made by the sepoys of my Seikh guard that the bunneahs here were using a seer 6 pice less in weight than the Company's seer, which is very much lighter than the Lahore one, and which we should suppose is the seer used through the country under the Lahore Government.

March 17th. Hurrin. Halted here to-day as my tents were still very wet and too heavy for the camels. Jhelum considerably swollen since yesterday and the fields in its neighbourhood perfect swamps. Several very fine poppy fields are growing near this, which are said to yield good opium. Supplies in abundance and water remarkably good.

March \&th. Hurrin to Meanee, 7 kos. Hurrin to Meanee said to be 7 kos. Towards the Jhelum the country is well cultivated, but to the south of the road until close to Meanee, dense bush jungle covers the country. Several villages occur, the principal of which are Badshapoor, Kirtowall, Chuckdunda, Mulick, Wall, Bula, Chuckseydeda and Ka- lianpore. On arrival here was waited on by the Kardars, Mulk Doulat Bai and Dass Mull. Around this village poppy fields are pretty nu- merous and a good deal of opium is said to be made here.

March 19th. Meanee to Pind Badud Khan, cross Jhelum 3 miles. Crossed the Jhelum this morning and reached Pind Dadud Khan, which is only 3 miles distance from Meanee. The boats on the Jhelum are remarkably large and good, and are propelled across the stream by a large oar, the first we have seen on the Punjaub river boats. The passage of the Jhelum is a very tedious one, from its breadth and the strength of the current. Above Pind Dadud Khan it is divided into two branches that unite into one main stream a little below the towns which is about a mile distant from the river, and situated on a plain of about 4 miles in breadth between the river, and the foot of the salt range, and richly cultivated. Dispatched weekly diary to Lahore and received a visit from Missers Bulla Bam and Gyan Chund, who oifered a nuzzur of Bs. 110, which was accepted. The latter shewed me spe- cimens of coal from Keurah, also lumps of iron pyrites from the same place, and specimens of crystallized and compact sulphur from the neighbourhood of Mokudd.

March 20th. Pind Badud Khan. Accompanied by Jowhair Mukl, one of the Missers Munshies, I started at daybreak to visit the dis- trict where the salt mines of Keurah occur, and where a coal was said to

1849.] Trip to Pind Badud Khan and the Salt Range. 665

exist. Distance from Pind Dadud Khan to foot of the hills is about 3 miles, where the road becomes very bad, being covered with loose rounded boulders which have rolled down from the heights above. From the foot of the hills to the salt mine village of Keurah is about 2 miles, through a valley surrounded on each side by rocks of redbrick- coloured marl, full of white masses of saccharine gypsum, and resting on a conglomerate of red sandstone. This red marl appears to be the matrix of the rock salt which is found in greatest abundance at Keurah, where there are no less than 10 shafts sunk into the marl for the pur- pose of extracting the article, which is deposited in large quantity around the village as it is brought out of the mine by the workers. The principal shaft at present worked is to the right of the village, the entrance to which is by an opening about 7 feet high cut in the red marl, and leading into a passage which sometimes ascending, at others descending, at last reaches a chamber 30 feet in height, 40 feet long and 640 feet from the mouth of the shaft, and excavated entirely from the rock salt, of which there yet seems abundance, above and below and on either side. In this chamber men, women and children are engaged working the salt by the light of small lamps hung on the walls of the mineral, and their appearance in the