From Januanj 7, 1886, to June 10, 1886.




Drmters in ©rbinaro to $er Ifajesig. MDCCCLXXXY1,




No. 242.— January 7, 1886.


Experimental Researches on the Propagation of Heat by Conduction in Muscle, Liver, Kidney, Bone, and Brain. By J. S. Lombard, M.D., formerly Assistant Professor of Physiology in Harvard University 1

Further Researches into the Function of the Thyroid Gland and into the Pathological State produced by Removal of the same. By Professor Victor Horsley, B.S., F.R.C.S 6

Contributions to the Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of Piagio- stomata. By Alfred Sanders, M.R.C.S., F.L.S 10

January 14, 1886.

On the Action of Sunlight on Micro-organisms, &c, with a Demonstra- tion of the Influence of Diffused Light. By Arthur Downes, M.D 14

Notes upon the Straining of Ships caused by Rolling. By Francis Elgar, LL.D., F.R.S.E., Professor of Naval Architecture and Marine Engi- neering in the University of Glasgow 22

Proteid Substances in Latex. By J. R. Green, B.Sc, B. A., Demonstrator of Physiology in the University of Cambridge 28

The Coefficient of Viscosity of Air. By Herbert Tomlinson, B.A 40

January 21, 1886.

Family-likeness in Stature. By Francis Galton, F.R.S. With an Appendix by J. D. Hamilton Dixon, Fellow and Tutor of St. Peter's College, Cambridge 42

The Early Development of Julus terrestris. By F. G. Heathcote, M.A., Trin. Coll., Cam 73

On Radiant Matter Spectroscopy : Note on the Spectra of Li bia. By William Crookes, F.R.S 77



On the Clark Cell as a Standard of Electromotive Force. By the Lord Rayleigh, M.A., D.C.L., £W S 79

Account of a new Volcanic' . . d in the Pacific Ocean. By Wilfred Rowell, H.B.M. Consul in Samoa. In a letter to the Hydrographer of the Admiralty 81

January 28, 1886.

On Local Magnetic Disturbance in Islands situated far from a Continent. By Staff-Commander E. W. Creak, R.N., F.R.S., of the Admiralty Compass Department 83

Description of some Remains of the Gigantic Land-Lizard (Megalania prisca, Owen) from Queensland, Australia, including Sacrum and Foot- Bones. Part IV. By Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.R.S., &c 93

On the Development of the Cranial Nerves of the Newt. By Alice Johnson, Demonstrator of Biology, Newnham College, Cambridge, and Lilian Sheldon, Bathurst Student, Newnham College, Cambridge 94

List of Presents 96

On the Changes produced by Magnetisation in the Length of Rods of Iron, Steel, and Nickel. By Shelford Bidwell, M.A., LL.B 109

No. 243.— February 4, 1886.

On Intravascular Clotting. By L. C. Wooldridge, M.B., D.Sc, Demon- strator of Physiology in Guy's Hospital (from the Brown Institu- tion) 134

A Further Enquiry into a Special Colour-relation between the Larva of Smerinthus ocellatus and its Food-plants. By Edward B. Poulton, M.A., of Jesus and Keble Colleges, Oxford 135

On the Polarisation of Light by Reflection from the Surface of a Crystal of Iceland Spar. By Sir John Conroy, Bart., M.A., of Keble College, Oxford 173

February 11, 1886.

On the Theory of Lubrication and its Application to Mr. Beauchamp Tower's Experiments, including an Experimental Determination of the Viscosity of Olive Oil. By Professor Osborne Reynolds, LL.D., F.R.S , 191

The Electrical Phenomena accompanying the Process of Secretion in the Salivary Glands of the Dog and Cat. By W. Maddock Bayliss, B.Sc, and J. Rose Bradford, B.Sc, Senior Demonstrator of Anatomy in Uni- versity College, London (from the Physiological Laboratory of Univer-

sity College) , 203

February 18, 1886.

Observations on the Radiation of Light and Heat from Bright and Black Incandescent Surfaces. By Mortimer Evans, M. Inst. C.E., F.R.A.S 207



On a Thermopile and a Galvanometer combined. By Professor George Forbes, M.A 217

February 25, 1886.

On a Comparison between Apparent Inequalities of Short Period in Sun- spot Areas and in Diurnal Declination-ranges at Toronto and at Prague. By Balfour Stewart, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., and William Lant Car- penter, B.A., B.Sc , 220

On Badiant Matter Spectroscopy : Note on the Earth Y*. By William Crookes, F.E.S 236

March 4, 1886.

List of Candidates 237

The Bakeriax Lecture. Colour Photometry. By Captain Abney, R.E., F.R.S., and Major-General Festing, E.E. 238

March 11, 1886.

The Influence of Stress and Strain on the Physical Properties of Matter. Part I. Elasticity continued. The Internal Friction of Metals. By Herbert Tomlinson, B.A 240

On Systems of Circles and Spheres. By B. Lachlan, M.A.,Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 242

Effects of Stress and Magnetisation on the Thermoelectric Quality of Iron. By Professor J. A. Ewing, B.Sc, University College, Dundee 246

March 18, 1886.

The Relationship of the Activity of Vesuvius to certain Meteorological and Astronomical Phenomena. By Dr. H. J. Johnson-La vis 248

On an Apparatus for connecting and disconnecting a Eeceiver under Exhaustion by a Mercurial Pump. By J. T. Bottomley, M.A., F.E.S.E 249

Comparative Effects of different parts of the Spectrum on Silver Salts. . By Captain W. de W. Abney, E.E., F.E.S. ... 251

March 25, 1886.

Abstract of Paper upon the Minute Anatomy of the Brachial Plexus. By W. P. Herringham, M.B., M.E.C.P 255

On the Changes produced by Magnetisation in the Length of Iron Wires under Tension. By Shelford Bidwell, M.A., LL.B 257

Remarks on the Cloaca and on the Copulatory Organs of the Amniota. By Dr. Gadow 266

Electrolytic Conduction in Relation to Molecular Composition, Valency, and the nature of Chemical Change : being an Attempt to apply a Theory of " Eesidual Affinity." By Henry E. Armstrong, Ph.D., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, City and Guilds of London Central Institution » 268

List of Presents « 291

No. 244.— April 1, 1886.

On the Correction to the Equilibrium Theory of Tides for the Continents. I. By G. H. Darwin, LL.D., F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity College, and Plumian Professor in the University of Cambridge. II. By H. H. Turner, B.A., Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 303

Description of Fossil Remains of two Species of a Megalanian Genus (Meiolania, Ow.), from Lord Howe's Island. By Sir Richard Owen, K.C.B., F.B.S 315

On the Luni- Solar Variations of Magnetic Declination and Horizontal Force at Bombay, and of Declination at Trevandrum. By Charles Chambers, F.B.S 316

On a New Form of Stereoscope. By A. Stroh 317

April 8,1886.

Croonian Lecture. On the Coagulation of the Blood. By L. C. Wool- dridge, M.B., D.S., Demonstrator of Physiology in Guy's Hospital and Research Scholar to the Grocers' Company 320

April 15, 1886.

Preliminary Notes on certain Zoological Observations made at Talisse Island, North Celebes. By Sydney J. Hickson, D.Sc, B.A 322

Dynamo-electric Machines. By John Hopkinson, D.Sc, F.R.S., and Edward Hopkinson, D.Sc 326

May 6, 1886.

List of Candidates 329

On an Effect produced by the Passage of an Electric Discharge through Pure Nitrogen. By J. J. Thomson, M.A., F.B.S., Fellow of Trinity College, Cavendish Professor of Experimental Physics, Cambridge, and R. Threlfall, B.A., Caius College, Cambridge, Prof essor of Experimental Physics in the University of Sydney 329

Some Experiments on the Production of Ozone. By J. J. Thomson, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow of Trinity College, and Cavendish Professor of Experi- mental Physics in the University of Cambridge, and R. Threlfall, Caius College, Cambridge, and Professor of Experimental Physics in the University of Sydney 340

The Influence of Stress and Strain on the Physical Properties of Matter. Part I. Elasticity continued. The Effect of Change of Temperature on the Internal Friction and Torsional Elasticity of Metals. By Herbert Tomlinson, B.A 343



On a New Means of converting Heat Energy into Electrical Energy. By WiUiard E. Case, of Auburn, New York, U.SA 345

Further Discussion of the Sun-spot Spectra Observations made at Ken- sington. By J. Norman Lockyer, F.R.S 347

May 13, 1886.

On the Structure of Mucous Salivary Glands. By J. N. Langley, M.A., F.R.S., Fellow and Lecturer of Trinity College, Cambridge 362

On the Computation of the Harmonic Components, &c. By Lieut. - General Strachey, E.E., C.S.L, F.R.S 367

On the Sympathetic Vibrations of Jets. By Chichester A. Bell, M.B 368

Intensity of Badiation through Turbid Media. By Captain Abney, R.E., F.R.S., and Major-General Festing, R.E \ 378

May 20, 1886.

Relation of ' Transfer-Resistance ' to the Molecular Weight and Chemical Composition of Electrolytes. By G. Gore, LL.D., F.R.S 380

A Study of the Thermal Properties of Ethyl Oxide. By William Ram- say, Ph.D., and Sydney Young, D.Sc. 381

On the Working of the Harmonic Analyser at the Meteorological Office. By Robert H. Scott, F.R.S., and Richard H. Curtis, F.R.Met. Soc 382

List of Presents 393

No. Mb.— May 27, 1886. Family-likeness in Eye-colour. By Francis Galton, F.R.S 402

A General Theorem in Electrostatic Induction, with Application of it to the Origin of Electrification by Friction. By John Buchanan, B.Sc, Demonstrator of Physics, University College, London 416

Notes on Alteration induced by Heat in certain Vitreous Rocks ; based on the Experiments of Douglas Herman, F.I.C., F.C.S., and G. F. Rodwell, late Science Master in Marlborough College. By Frank Rutley, F.G.S., Lecturer on Mineralogy in the Royal School of Mines . 430

On the Relation between the Thickness and the Surface-tension of Liquid Films. By A. W. Remold, M.A., F.R.S., Professor of Physics in the Royal Naval College, Greenwich, and A. W. Rucker, M.A., F.RS 441

Experiments with Pressure on Excitable Tissues. By George J. Romanes, F.R.S 446

The Influence of Stress and Strain on the Physical Properties of Matter. Part I. Elasticity continued. The Effect of Magnetisation on the Elasticity and the Internal Friction of Metals. By Herbert Tomlin- son, B.A 447



Eesearches in Stellar Photography. 1. In its Eelation to the Photometry of the Stars ; 2. Its Applicability to Astronomical Measurements of Great Precision. By the Kev. C. Pritchard, D.D., F.E.S., Savilian Professor of Astronomy in Oxford 449

Researches upon the Self-induction of an Electric Current. By Professor D. E. Hughes, F.E.S ! 450

Contribution to the Study of Intestinal Eest and Movement. By J. Theodore Cash, M.D 469

June 4, 1886.

Election of Fellows * 471

June 10, 1886.

On the Blood- Vessels of Mustelus antarcticus : a Contribution to the Morphology of the Vascular System in the Vertebrata. By T. Jeffrey Parker, B.Sc, C.M.Z.S., Professor of Biology in the University of Otago, N.Z 472

A Minute Analysis (experimental) of the various Movements produced by stimulating in the Monkey different Eegions of the Cortical Centre for the Upper Limb, as defined by Professor Ferrier. By Charles E. Beevor, M.D., M.E.C.P., and Professor Victor Horsley, F.E.S., B.S., F.E.C.S 475

On the Discrimination of Maxima and Minima Solutions in the Calculus of Variations. By E. P. Culverwell 476

On the Anatomy, Histology, and Physiology of the Intraocular Muscles of Mammals. By Waiter H. Jessop, M.A., M.B., Cantab., F.E.C.S., Demonstrator of Anatomy at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, London, &c. 478

On the Place of Origin of Uric Acid in the Animal Body. By Alfred Baring Garrod, M.D., F.E.S 484

On the Lifting Power of Electromagnets and the Magnetisation of Iron. By Shelford Bidwell, M.A., LL.B.. 486

On a New Scale for Tangent Galvanometers. By W. H. Preece, F.E.S., and H. E. Kempe 496

On Fluted Crateiiess Carbons for Arc Lighting. By Sir James N. Douglass 500

On some new Elements in Gadolinite and Samarskite, detected spec- troscopically. By William Crookes, F.E.S., V.P.C.S 502

The Distribution of Micro-organisms in Air. By Percy F. Frankland, Ph.D., B.Sc, F.C.S., F.I.C., Assoc. Eoy. Sch. Mines 509

On the Multiplication of Micro-organisms. By Percy F. Frankland, Ph.D., B.Sc, F.C.S., F.I.C., Assoc Eoy. Sch. Mines 526

Observations on Pure Ice and Snow. By Thomas Andrews, F.E.S.E., F.C.S., Wortley Iron Works, near Sheffield 544

On the Gaseous Constituents of Meteorites. By Gerrard Ansdell, F.C.S., and Prof. James Dewar, F.E.S 549



Preliminary Communication on the Structure and Presence in Sphenodon and other Lizards of the Median Eye, described by von Graaf in A nguis fragilis. By W. Baldwin Spencer, B.A., Demonstrator of Comparative Anatomy in University of Oxford, Fellow of Lincoln College 559

Star Photography. The Effects of Long and Short Exposures on Star Magnitudes. By Isaac Eoberts, F.R.A.S 566

An Instrument for the Speedy Volumetric Determination of Carbonic Acid. By W. Marcet, M.D., F.R.S. 566

On the Practical Measurements of Temperatures ; Experiments made at the Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. By H. L. Callendar, B.A., Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge 566

The Determination of Organic Matter in Air. By Professor T. Carnelley and William Mackie 566

The Carbonic Acid, Organic Matter, and Micro-organisms in Air, more especially of Dwellings and Schools. By Professor T. Carnelley, J. S. Haldane, and Dr. A. M. Anderson 566

Preliminary Report on the Pathology of Cholera Asiatica (as observed in Spain, 1885). By C. S. Roy, F.R.S., J. Graham Brown, M.D., &c, and C. S. Sherrington, M.B 566

Lists of Presents 567

Index 575

Obituary Notice :

Captain Sir Frederick J. O. Evans, R.N., K.C.B i


vol. xl. No. 242.


CONTENTS. r g •3

January 7, 1886. ^s&u , *ff\ J '


I. - Experimental on the Propagation of Heat by Conduction in Muscle, Liver, Kidney, Bone, and Brain. By J. S. Lombard, M.D., formerly Assistant Professor of Physiology in Harvard University . 1

II. Further Besearches into the Function of the Thyroid Gland and into the Pathological State produced by Removal of the same. By Professor Victor Hoeslet, B.S., F.R.C.S 6

III. Contributions to the Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of Plagio-

stomata. By Alfred Sanders, M.E.O.S., F.L.S 10

January 14, 1886.

I. On the Action of Sunlight on Micro-organisms, &c, with a Demonstration

of the Influence of Diffused Light. By Arthtjr Downes, M.D. . 14

II. Notes upon the Straining of Ships caused by Rolling. By Francis

Elgar, LL.D., F.R.S.E., Professor of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering in the University of Glasgow . . . . . . 22

III. Proteid Substances in Latex. By J. R. G-eeen, B.Sc, B.A., Demonstrator

of Physiology in the University of Cambridge . . . . .28

IV. The Coefficient of Viscosity of Air. By Herbert Tomlinson, B.A. . 40

u y

For continuation of Contents see 4<tk gage of Wrapper,

Price Five Shillings.


Part II, 1884.


XIII. On the Dynamics of a Eigid Body in Elliptic Space. By R. S. Heath, B.A.

XIV. Researches on Spectrum Photography in relation to New Methods of

Quantitative Chemical Analysis. Part II. By W. N. Hartley, F.R.S.E., &c.

XV. On the Transfer of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field. By J. H. POYNTINa, M.A.

XVI. On the Motion of Eluid, part of which is moving Rotationally and part

Irrotationally. By M. J. M. Hill, M.A.

XVII. On the Electro-chemical Equivalent of Silver, and on the Absolute Electro-

motive Force of Clark Cells. By Lord Rayleigh, D.C.L., and Mrs. H. Sidgwick.

XVIII. Influence of Change of Condition from the Liquid to the Solid State on Vapour-Pressure. By William Ramsay, Ph.D., and Sydney Young, D.Sc. ^

XIX. A Record of Experiments on the Effects of Lesion of Different Regions of the Cerebral Hemispheres. By David Febeiee, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., and Geeald F. Yeo, M.D., F.R.C.S.

XX. On the Comparative Morphology of the Leaf in the Vascular Cryptogams

and Grymnosperms. By F. O. Bowee, M.A., F.L.S.

XXI. Conditions of Chemical Change in G-ases : Hydrogen, Carbonic Oxide, and

Oxygen. By Haeold B. Dixon, M.A.

Index to Part II.

Price £1 16*.

Extra volume (vol. 168) containing the Reports of the Naturalists attached to the Transit of Venus Expeditions. Price £3.

Sold by Harrison and Sons.

Separate copies of Papers in the Philosophical Transactions, commencing with 1875, may be had of Tnibner and Co., 57, Ludgate Hul.




January 7, 1886.

Professor STOKES, D.C.L., President, in the Chair.

The Presents received were laid on the table, and thanks ordered for them.

The following Papers were read :

I. "Experimental Researches on the Propagation of Heat by Conduction in Muscle, Liver, Kidney, Bone, and Brain." By J. S. Lombard, M.D., formerly Assistant Professor of Physiology in Harvard University. Communicated by Charles E. Brown-Sequarb, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. Received December 7, 1885.


The apparatus employed in the present investigations was the same thermo-electric one that was used in the experiments on conduction of heat in bone, brain- tissue, and skin, described in a former paper,* but the mode of application of the thermo-pile to the tissue was somewhat different. The tissue, whether hard or soft, was placed on a thin copper plate, which formed the floor of a square hole cut in the bottom of a small light wooden box. The pile, having been applied to the upper surface of the tissue, was held in place by means of a paste- board collar, which was made fast with pins to the edges of the box. In the case of the soft tissues, light weights were affixed to the pile to regulate the pressure. With bone, in order to insure intimate contact between the pile and the tissue, and between the latter and the copper plate, a little marrow was used. The unoccupied space in the box was filled with finely chopped cotton-wool. The box had pasteboard uprights attached to its sides, by which it was suspended from the

* " Proc. Roy. Soc," vol. 34, pp. 173, 19S. VOL. XL. B


Dr. J. S. Lombard. Conduction of Heat in [Jan. 7,

sliding arm of a stand. The inferior surface of the copper plate was brought in contact with water of a temperature lower than that of the air by fractions of a degree of centigrade, as in the former experiments referred to.

Experiments on Muscle. The muscles examined were those of the head, thigh, and leg of the sheep.

It soon was noticed that the rate of transmission differed somewhat, according as the muscle was examined in the direction of its fibres or perpendicularly to them ; and this fact led to the division of the experiments into two classes, according as the line of conduction was parallel or at right angles to that of the fibres.

Tables I and II give results obtained under these two conditions respectively. The results represent 104 observations on conduction parallel to tbe direction of the fibres, and 100 observations on conduc- tion at right angles to this direction.

Table I. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm. of Sheep's Muscle,

parallel to the direction of the Fibres.


Percentages of heat transmitted.





Permanent thermal condition . . .

33-985391 51 -215703 66-775211 82 -730123

58 -359600 77 -219200 93 -108500 99 -500000

19 -959500 34-712200 49-133700 63-557000

Table II. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm. of Sheep's Muscle, perpendicular to the direction of the Fibres.


Percentages of he?t transmitted.






Permanent thermal condition . . .

27-038177 40 -701253 58 -174220 76 -614920

40-837000 60-789900 84-384200 99 -422300

11-373300 26 -283600 39 -203600 50-911200

It will be seen that parallel conduction shows the higher per-

1886.] Muscle, Liver, Kidney, Bone, and Brain. 3

centages average, maximum, and minimum at every period. The average percentages of superiority of parallel conduction over conduc- tion at right angles are as follows :


At the end of At the end of At the end of thermal

4 minutes. 6 minutes. 9 minutes. condition.

6-947214 .... 10-51445 .... 8 '600991 .... 6-115203

The conductivity of muscle, unlike that of the other tissues examined, does not appear to depend, at least in any marked manner, upon the degree of freshness of the tissue. So long as the muscle is kept in a moist state, it seems to conduct equally well whether recently removed from the auimal or after decay has commenced ; and when the conductivity has been decidedly lowered by exposure to the air, it generally can be partially, and sometimes completely, restored, by moistening the tissue with water or fresh animal juices.

Experiments on Liver..

The liver examined was that of the sheep. Table III gives the results of sixty experiments on this organ.

Table III. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm. of Sheep's Liver.


Percentages of heat transmitted.




6 ,,


Permanent thermal condition . . .

45 -628640 64 -338080 81 -164906 93 -043060

61-618700 79-448900 93 171900 99 -500000

- 27-367800 48 -352500 64 -3C3800 78 -004000

The conductivity of liver diminishes steadily and rapidly after death, and is not restored by moisture or fresh animal matter, although these latter seem to reduce the rate of loss.

Experiments on Kidney.

The observations were made on sheep's kidney. Tables TV and \r give respectively the results of thirty experiments on the cortical substance, and of an equal number on the medullary tissue.

The tables show that at every period of the observations, excepting the maximum for the ninth minute, which gives a slight balance in favour of the medullary tissue the cortical tissue is the better con- ductor.

e 2


Dr. J. S. Lombard. Conduction of Heat in [Jan. 7,

Table IV. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm. of the Cortical Substance of Sheep's Kidney.


Percentages of heat transmitted.





Permanent thermal condition . . .

44-512983 64 -946250 82 -431483 97 -715600

53-013900 72 -318700 87 -027000 99 -500000

27-725100 59 -696400 78 -138000 93-466600

Table V. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm. of the Medullary Substance of Sheep's Kidney.


Percentages of heat transmitted.




» 6 >,


Permanent thermal condition . . .

36 -541850 56-686350 71 536316 91 -947716

46-86L700 69 -645700 87-121000 98 -676300

19-867800 39-955000 53 310900 78 -150400

Both cortical and medullary substances behave like liver as regards the diminution of conductivity after death, and the effect of water and fresh animal matter on this loss.

Experiments on Bone.

The observations were made on the tibia and the ilium of the sheep. The experiments were divided into three classes, according as the tissue was compact, spongy or combined compact-spongy. Some 200 experi- ments were made, which were divided about equally between the three varieties of tissue.

Tables VI, VII, and VIII give the results of these experiments. According to the tables, spongy tissue stands first in average, maxi- mum, and minimum conductivity, at every period, and the combined compact-spongy tissue comes next, also as regards all three valuations and every period of time.

1886.] Muscle, Liver, Kidney, Bone, and Brain. 5

Table VI. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm. of the Compact Tissue of the Head of Sheep's Tibia.


Percentages of heat transmitted.




» 6

Permanent thermal condition . . .

24 -067400 36 -3055-60 47 -959167 70 -770483

30 -377800 40 -4L1400 54-529600 75 -717700

16 -106900 30 -831300 35 -357000 56 -179500

Table VII. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm. of the Spongy Tissue of the Head of Sheep's Tibia.


Percentages of heat transmitted.





Permanent thermal condition . . .

35 -939917 52 -274800 70-911200 89 -779800

54 -671700 74 -495300 89 -498600 97 -225600

21 -894200 31 -398500 41-547200 62 -436700

Table VIII. Conduction of Heat through 10 mm., of Sheep's Ilium. Compact and Spongy Tissues combined..


Percentages of heat transmitted.






Permanent thermal condition . .

32 -736216 48-374200 61-197667 74-741783

45 -292000 64-755300 81 -495700 95 -458500

18-351600 31-195800 40 -602900 59 -718700

Both compact and spongy tissues lose their conducting power more or less rapidly after removal from their natural surroundings ; spongy tissue much more quickly than compact. Spongy tissue may regain the greater part of the loss of its cond activity, after the application of water or fresh animal matter, but this is not the case with compact


Prof. Victor Horsley.

[Jan. 7,

tissue ; however, moisture seems to slightly reduce the rate of loss in the latter. With regard to the compound tissue compact-spongy, the changes which its conductivity undergoes present simply a varying mean of those of its two components. After long exposure to the air, the bone being well dried, the conductivities of compact and of spongy tissue are found to closely approximate each other.

Experiments on Brain.

The experiments on this tissue had reference only to the changes of its conductivity, due to exposure to the air, and to the effect of moisture and fresh animal liquids on these changes.

Like liver and kidney, the tissue of brain quickly loses its power of conduction after death, and neither moisture or fresh animal matter can restore this loss, although they may diminish its rate.

II. " Further Researches into the Function of the Thyroid Gland and into the Pathological State produced by Removal of the same." By Professor Victor Horsley, B.S., F.R.C.S. Communicated by Professor Michael Foster, M.D., Sec. R.S. Received December 10, 1885.

In December, 1884, I showed that the thyroid gland was intimately connected with the process of mucin metabolism, that if the thyroid gland in monkeys was removed with antiseptic precautions (the same ensuring healing of the wound in three days) the consequences to the animal were (1) symptoms of general nervous disturbance evidenced by tremors, paroxysmal convulsions, functional paralysis, mental hebe- tude, and finally complete imbecility ; (2) profound anaemia coupled with leucocytosis ; (3) all the symptoms of the disease discovered within the last decade and termed myxcedema; (4) that just as in the acute form of the disease just named there was found to be a great accumulation of mucin in the connective tissues throughout the body (mucinoid degeneration), and in the blood, and as a consequence the same post-mortem appearances ; (5) that at the same time there was a great activity in the raucin-secreting glands, and, further, that the parotid gland under these abnormal circumstances secreted mucin in large quantity, the gland cells at the same time disintegrating.

During the past year I have confirmed my previous observations, and greatly extended them, and have firm basis for my original opinion that the function of the thyroid gland is indispensable to the higher animals, and that it is duplex, since, in the first place, it regulates the formation of mucin in the body ; and, in the second


On the Function of the Thyroid Gland.


place, it aids in the manufacture of blood-corpuscles. My researches during the past year (1885) have been directed towards the investi- gation of (1) the circumstances which influence the course of the extensive disturbance of general nutrition which follows the loss of the gland ; (2) the direct effect of the said fall in nutrition upon the nerve-centres ; and (3) the haemapoietic function of the gland.

(1.) I find that the determining factor par excellence of the value of the gland as regards its influence on the general metabolic processes of the animal is Age. The effect of removing the gland in the young animal is the rapid appearance of violent nerve symptoms and death in a few days; in a rather older animal, i.e., a one-year old dog, the symptoms are less violent, later in their appearance, and the animal survives perhaps for a fortnight or three weeks ; in a very old animal the removal of the gland simply hastens the torpor of old age ; these observations refer to dogs and cats. In the higher animals, monkeys, the operation on a young individual produces the same result as in a young dog, but, as I showed last year, an older animal, if kept under ordinary circumstances, will survive for six or seven weeks, dying at the end of that time of myxcedema. On the whole, therefore, it appears that the thyroid gland is of extreme importance when tissue metabolism is most active, and that it diminishes as the senile state advances. Huschke has shown that the relative weight of the thyroid body to the body weight is greatest at birth, that it rapidly diminishes during the next few weeks, and that it steadily decreases as age advances. Finally, the structural degeneration of the gland in old age is well known. It is clear, therefore, that the gland plays an important and constant part in the metabolism of the body; I desire here to draw special attention to the fact that the symptoms of old age, namely, wasting of the actively functional parenchymatous tissues, atrophy, and falling out of the hair, decay of the teeth, dryness and harshness of the skin, tremors, &c, are exactly the most prominent features of the myxcedematous state, whether it occurs naturally in the human being, prematurely, as in cretinism, or artificially, as in my experiments on monkeys. It is, perhaps, well to remark here that, as might have been foreseen, the previous state of nutrition of the body determines to a large extent the rapidity of onset and the course of the symptoms.

The next circumstance of extreme importance which influences the course of the symptoms is the Temperature at which the animals are kept after the gland has been removed. I showed last year that one of the most obvious features of the fall of nutrition which follows the loss of the gland was a steady diminution of the body heat, this sug- gested to me a line of research which has yielded a striking result. I have kept another series of animals (on whom I have performed thyroidectomy under the conditions above stated) at a constant tern-


Prof. Victor Horsley.

[Jan. 7,

perature of 90° F.,* and when they exhibited any nerve symptoms, i.e., tremors, &c, were placed in a hot-air bath at a temperature of 105° F. The effect of this has been to lengthen the duration of life (in all but very young animals) four or five times the extent of that observed in the first series. Instead of living four to seven weeks they now live as many months. At the same time several additional facts of im- portance are noted, and the symptoms before referred to are so modi- fied as to require the addition of a third stage to the two I described in 1884. (These observations refer solely to monkeys.) The animals kept under the extra high temperature above noted thus pass through three stages (1) neurotic, (2) mncinoid, (3) atrophic. I have said that the neurotic stage under these circumstances may be scarcely marked, or if the nerve symptoms occur, and the animal be put in the hot-air bath, they soon disappear. Next the animal lives through the mucinoid stage, i.e., myxcedematous condition, and arrives in the third stage the atrophic. Now, the symptoms of the second stage are just as much subdued as those of the first, there is no excessive secre- tion of mucus, the parotid glands do not swell, and the post-mortem examination does not reveal the extensive mucinoid degeneration observed in the first series. Finally, the third, atrophic, stage into which the animal passes is evidenced by great emaciation, functional paresis and paralysis, imbecility, falling blood pressure and tempera- ture, with death by coma.

I am disposed to regard this fact of the animals passing through these neurotic, mucinoid stages, and dying at the end of the atrophic, as the key to the observation that cretins in whom the thyroid gland is very slowly destroyed, and very chronic cases of myxcedema, do not exhibit much mucinoid degeneration.

(2.) I will now briefly enumerate the direct effect of the fall of nutri- tion produced by the loss of the thyroid gland on the nerve-centres : (a) Effect on cortex.f The tetanus obtained by stimulating the cortex is remarkably changed (even as soon as one day after the thyroidectomy in a dog, who exhibited violent symptoms in twenty-four hours) by the fact of the fall (when the current was shut off) being as sudden as that observed on stimulating the corona radiata. Next, that the tetanus in a more advanced case is soon exhausted, the curve approaching the abscissa soon after the initial rise ; at the same time the curve is followed by clonic epileptoid spasms, which, however, are soon exhausted. Stimulation of the corona radiata and spinal cord also gave the customary tetanus, which, like that of the cortex, was rapidly exhausted. These stimulations of the nerve-centres sap-

* In my first experiments (1884) the animals were kept at a temperature varying from 60° to 70° F.

f G-raphica'ly recorded according to method described by Prof. Schafer and myself (" Proc. Roy. Soc," vol. 39, p. 404).


On the Function of the Thyroid Gland.


pressed the thyroid tremors just as voluntary movements do. Another evidence of the changes in the cortex is the frequency with which continuous stimulation will evoke the appearance of clonic spasms on the original tetanic curve, the latter not being followed by epilepsy when the current is shut off.

(b.) Effect on the spinal cord. The tetanus obtained by stimulating the spinal cord like that of the cortex rises slowly to the highest point, and then steadily falls towards the abscissa although the stimulation is maintained, and when the current is shut off the muscle completely relaxes, having absolutely lost its tone, and this tonic paralysis is not recovered from for ten to fifteen seconds. Stimulation of the spinal cord to fatigue, after some time has elapsed so as to produce exhaustion of the preliminary tetanus, evokes a tremor of eight to ten per second.

Tracings from an old animal (cat) which had survived the operation some months, and also from a dog, in which case the symptoms had been very severe for some days, exhibited only a very feeble tetanus in the former instance, and no reaction at all in the latter ; this being the ultimate state of depression of function which the nerve-centres had arrived to.

(3.) I have thought it as well to add to the anatomical and physio- logical proofs I gave last year of the thyroid gland being a hsema- poietic structure by counting the number of corpuscles in the blood of the thyroid artery and vein respectively. After discounting any possible alteration in the relative number of the corpuscles in the two vessels by changes in the fluid constituent of the blood which may have happened in the gland, the much greater number of corpuscles in the vein ( + 7 per cent.) confirms the deductions drawn from my previous observations.

To sum up, the functions of the thyroid gland appears to me to be two-fold as already suggested, viz. r (I) Control of mucin metabolism, (2) Hsemapoiesis. The metabolic processes in the body may be regarded broadly as resulting in Construction and Destruction. The products of destruction are the waste products of tissue change, and being, as such, harmful to the organism, are cast out by the excretory organ. It appears to me that the thyroid gland aids in excretion of mucinoid substances or their precursors, not of course by excretion properly speaking, that is, casting them out from the body, but by metamorphosing them into some other form which is useful to the system. That this process, whatever it is, is of vital importance to the young mammal (seeing that interference with it causes death in a few days) is obvious, and such as it is the loss of it is distinctly con- nected with the appearances of the diseases known as myxcedema, cretinism, and senile degeneration. Finally, this defect in the circle of metabolism determines the appearance of so-called functional disorders of the nervous system.


Mr. A. Sanders. On the Anatomy of the [Jan. 7,

III. "Contributions to the Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of Plagiostomata." By Alfred Sanders, M.R.C.S., F.L.S. Communicated by Dr. Gunther, F.R.S. Received December 11, 1885.


After referring to the literature of the subject, the author gives a short account of the macroscopic appearance of the brains of the following species of Plagiostomata, viz., Raja batis, Rhina squatina, Scy Ilium catulus, and Acanthias vulgaris. He then refers to the distribution of the cranial nerves, especially of the trifacial and vagus, pointing out the resemblance of the distribution of the last- mentioned nerve in Rhina to that described by Gegenbaur* in Hexanthus ; the difference lying in the fact that in the former the rami branchial es of this nerve, the number of which correspond to the number of the branchial arches, divide into two terminal branches only, the rami anteriores and posteriores, the third, the rami pharyngei, being absent.

On the other hand, in Scyllium the rami branchiales do not divide, the terminal twigs, representing the rami pharyngei, only being present.

The lobi olfactorii consist of two parts, the lobe proper and the peduncle. The lobe itself is more or less pear-shaped, broader at the anterior end where it abuts on to the olfactory organ, and narrower behind where it passes into the peduncle. It consists of three layers, counting from before backward, or from outside inward. The posterior, which is also the internal layer, occupies more than half of the lobe, and consists entirely of a mass of small cells embedded in a network of fibrillaD and granular neuroglia. This network is of extreme tenuity, and the cells contained therein are oval, pear-shaped, or spherical in shape, and contain a nucleus and nucleolus ; they give off processes which join the network. In front of these, and outside to a certain extent, is found a layer consisting of glomeruli olfactorii ; these are elongated or pear-shaped masses arranged with their long axes in the direction of the nerve fibres. They consist of a central core of closely intertwined fibrillar ; externally the fibrils are of rather larger size ; they run longitudinally in reference to the glomerulus ; in their course elongated cells are developed.

The anterior or external layer consists of interlacing bundles of fibres which pass from the anterior ends of the glomeruli into the olfactory organ. The bundles themselves are flat, but the fibrillse of which they are composed are round.

* " Jenaische Zeitschrif t," Bd. 6, 1871.

1886.] Central Nervous System of Plagiostomata. 11

The structure of the peduncle resembles that of the olfactory lobe, and gradually passes into that of the cerebrum at the posterior end. In Scyllium, Rhina, and Acanthias it contains a passage which puts the ventricle of the olfactory lobe into communication with that of "the cerebrum. In Raja, however, both the lobe and the peduncle are solid.

The cerebrum contains two ventricles which posteriorly communi- cate with a single chamber, the foramen of Monro ; this is the case in Scyllium, Rhina, and Acanthias, but in Raja only a very small ventricle is present which represents the foramen of Monro, the remainder of the cerebrum being solid. Round the external surface of the cerebrum there is a layer of granular neuroglia with compara- tively few cells. The remainder of the parenchyma consists of a mass of cells, larger ones, 13/* to \0fi in diameter, occupying the centre, and smaller ones predominating towards the internal surface. In Scyllium the cells are arranged in groups of four or five, and in Raja also in groups of from nine to twenty-one, which make a meandering pattern through the parenchyma in some parts. At the base of the cerebrum there are four special groups of cells, two being placed in the outer walls and two in the inner walls ; the outer groups are associated with the fibres of the anterior commissure, and the inner groups are associated with the fibres of the crura cerebri.

The third ventricle is a gutter-shaped channel, long in Scyllium, but shorter in Raja, which leads from the cerebrum into the optic lobe ; above, it is closed in by processes of the pia mater which enter the ventricle and the foramen of Monro, forming a choroid plexus ; below, the third ventricle communicates by a passage, the infundi- bulum, with the ventricles of the hypoarium ; the parenchyma in this lobe contains numerous cells measuring from about 13^ by 7 'ju, to 6a in diameter, which give off numerous processes to join a fine network which pervades the Avhole. The ventricle is lined by an endothelium which is continuous with a space in the hypophysis cerebri. There is a small tubercle in front of the optic lobe which corresponds to the tuberculum intermedium of Gottsche,* and from it a bundle of fibres can be traced passing towards the ventral surface of the medulla oblongata, which corresponds to the fibres of Meynerfc.

The optic lobes which homologise with the anterior corpora quadrigemina form a cover arching over the aqueduct of Sylvius, in the same position as in the Teleostei ; they are much thicker, but more simple in structure. Neither the tori longitudinales nor the tori semicirculares, those tuberosities which form prominences on the floor of the aqueduct in the Teleostei, are present in the Plagiostomata. Three layers may be distinguished in the optic lobe; the external

* " Muller's Archiv," 1835.


Mr. A. Sanders. On the Anatomy of the [Jan. 7,

occupies about two-thirds of the thickness, and consists of longitudinal fibres which are derived from the optic tract, and numerous cells which attain tbeir maximum number in this layer; they are mostly spherical, but fusiform cells with their long axes placed radially are occasionally found.