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1992 - 1993 Student Handbooks will be distributed in September

The c 1 eati 1 i ne for advertising is June 2<>.

For more information, call Renee at the Carleton University Students' Association Publications Office at 788-3552.




May 28, 1992 VOLUME 22 NUMBER 7

Editor- In- Chief

Katie Swoger

Production Manager Jessika Borsiczky

Business Manager Michael Simpson



Leigh Bowser Brenda Bouw


David Bartolf

Debbie Wedge Lisa Currie

National Affairs

Cari Martin


Craig Piche



Ati Biggs


Michael Vickers

Scott Anderson Donna Fraser



David Saii


Steven Vesely

Kim Brunhuber



Nichole McCill


Anil Prasad

Michael Kearns



Karin Jordan


Kevin Skerrett

Gail Mitchell Katie Swoger


Photo Editor Assistant Editor

Dave Tufts no one


Lisa Currie


Carl Martin Derek Wong

Andrea Smith Nicole Waddick

Cover Dave Tufts The Charlatan's photos are produced using the Carleton University Students' Association Photo Service


Production Assistant

Jill Perry


John Macmillan Romeo St. Martin

Alex Klaus Lisa Currie




One and all


The Chnriotan, Carleton University's weekly newsmagazine, Is an editorially and financially autonomous journal, published weekly during the (all and winter term and monthly during the summer. Charlatan Publications Incorporated, Ottawa, Onta/lo, a non-profit corporation registered under ihe Canadian Corporations Act, is the publisher of The Charlatan. Editorial content Is the sole responsibility of editorial staff members, but may not reflect the beliefs of Its members. Contents are copyright ©1991. Nothing may be duplicated in any way without the prior written permission of the Editor-' Chief. All Rights Reserved. ISSN 031 5-18S9. The Charlatan Is an active member ol Canadian University Press (CUP), a national student newspaper co-operative, and the Ontario Community Newspaper Association. Subscriptlonsareavallableatacostof JlSforindlvidualsand 152 for Institutions Includes CST

National advertising lor The Charlatan is handled through Canadian University Press Media Services (Campus Plus), 73 R1chmondSt.W,,4thFlc*jr,Ontarlo;M5H1Z4; phone: (41 6)481 7283.

The Board ol Directors of Charlatan Publlcatlonslnc. is: Chairper- son: Sabrina McCluskey, Treasurer. Suzanne Dalcourt, Secretary: Adrienne Rogers, Directors: Carl Martin, Warren Klnsella, Anna Gibbons, Matthew Bullock, Catherine Doe, |uliet Osazfn. The Charlatan Room 531 Unkentre Carleton University Ottawa, Ontario Kl S 586" Telephone: (61 3) 788-6680 i



512UNICENTRE \ Black & While and Colour darkroom facilities.

Summer Memberships now available at ihe CUSA Office, 4iil Unicentre (788-6688)


Flashers raise fear on campus

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by Leigh Bowser and Debbie Wedge

Charlalan Staff

"Flashing" incidents have recently increased dramatically on campus, rais- ing questions about the effectiveness of Carleton's efforts to inform women of threats to their safety.

In mid-May, posters appeared in the Loeb building warning that a man, na- ked from the waist down, had been spot- ted in the area and had assaulted a graduate student. The posters did not identify who had put them up.

However, on May 21 security posted its own warnings around campus. It warned students, "There have been 11 incidents involving sexual exhibition- ism or 'flashing' on campus since Janu- ary 1 , 1 992. Some of these incidents have involved physical contact."

Rick Percival, of university security, said there is no specific pattern to the flashing incidentsbutsaid Paterson Hall, the library, the river bank, and the north end of campus seem to be the most frequently reported locations. He said the incidents are not being perpetrated by the same person.

The only common denominator be- tween the various campus flashers is they "are persons who need help right away," said Percival.

Percival said each time a woman is alone on campus, her personal safety is in danger. He said it is important to remember thatitis not the average thrill- seeker who engages in this activity, buta "person with a sick mind" who "seeks attention and feels that this behaviour exhibits power."

Percival said people who encounter the flasher should inform security and Nancy Adamson, the Status of Women Co-ordinator at Carleton.

He said the department fears the flash- ers may eventually resort to seeking their sexual gratification by other means. He said the matter is being taken very seri- ously, and part of the ongoing operation involves plainclothes security officers.

Lisa Jacobs, co-ordinator of the Wom- en's Centre, saidstill more security meas- ures could be taken.

"If they're really concerned about

Women alone are at risk

women's safety they'd have more secu- rity and free phones," said Jacobs.

Jacobs is meeting with Carleton's chief of security, along with CUSA safety com- missioner Sam Sheen and a representa- tive for CUPE 2323's women's committee to discuss safety concerns. Jacobs said she wants to set up a direct action group which would inform the university com- munity about incidents of crime on cam- pus.

Sheen said Carleton's adminstration has been "grossly irresponsible" in its handling of women's safety issues. She said she was recently informed there have been 1 1 "incidents" since January, but no details about them were given.

Sheen said some other universities provide information about crimes on campus as they occur and she wants Carleton to start doing the same. Sheen said that more information would allow

people to protect themselves and would also boost peoples' memories about crimes andsuspicious circumstances they may have witnessed.

There will be an open forum in Baker Lounge at 5 p.m. on June 11 where members of the Carleton community can discuss theirconcerns about campus safety. Sheen said these concerns will then be brought security's attention the following day.

Graduate students face fee hikes

by Brenda Bouw

Charlatan Staff

The price to pay for being a graduate student at Carleton has just gone up.

Effective May 1, 1992, graduate students at Carleton will pay as much as 78 per cent more for tuition from last year. The tuition increases are part of a province-wide effort to "harmonize" or equalize the costs of attend- ing graduate school in Ontario.

Tuition expenses for second-year masters and third-year PhD students have jumped to $475.00 per term, well above last year's cost of $265.50. Their total fee per term has risen to $558.74 from $349.24 and international students will be expected to pay $1,433.50 per term as of May 1 , a 73 per cent increase from the 1991-92 total of $1,307.74.

"We have to look at the overall fund- ing," said Spruce Riordon, Carleton vice- president (Administration) . "The increase in fees, while being a large jump, has to be seen among our fees being the lowest in the province."

According to John ApSimon, Dean of Graduate Studies and Research at Carle- ton, all universities in Ontario are tak- ing steps to adjust their graduate fee structure.

"This amendment to graduate fees structure is not surprising given the re- cent funding announcements regarding the transfer grant from the provincial government to colleges and universi- ties," ApSimon stated in an announcement to be placed in next year's graduate calendar.

Dave Fitch, the graduate student rep- resentative on the Board of Governors, said he thought the tuition increases were "fucking ridiculous."

Fitch said he was especially furious about the late notice graduate students were given about the increases.

"At least at U of T and Western, where the provincial increases originated, they gave their students some notice. I give credit to U of T for at least advertising the increases beforehand."

Steve Moore, president of the Gradu- ate Students' Association, said he was also upset about the tuition increase. Moore said the root of the problem came from the provincial government.

"It's just the first step in a long line of increases," Moore said. "The OCGS (On- tario Council of Graduate Studies) is acting as a lobbying group for deans at all of the universities."

Moore said the OCGS' lobbying caused

the provincial government to adopt the increases. Moore also said he expects graduate tuition fees to equal those of undergraduates fees within the next three years. Undergraduate arts students will pay $1,032 per term in 1992-93.

About 150 angry graduate students stormed a Senate meeting, April 21, to argue against the tuition increases. Stu- dents protested Carleton's decision to "harmonize" tuition fees with the rest of the province andargued over the univer- sity's refusal to "harmonize" teaching assistants' wages with those of other Ontario universities.

During a BOG meeting, April 28, Fitch

and Ottawa city councillor Jim Watson moved to review the tuition increases. The motion passed, calling fora $60,000 increase in bursaries for graduate stu- dents. Also, graduate students register- ing this summer will be given the option of initially paying only the 1991-92 tui- tion fee rate per course. They will be given a 90-day penalty-free period to make up the difference.

Fitch and Watson also moved to strike a committee consisting of graduate stu- dents, board members and administra- tion to review the new fee structure and report back after 90days. The committee is expected to report on August 4.

A date to remember

by Leigh Bowser

Charlalan Slaff

Maclean's may not think much of Carleton university, but Ottawa city council thinks we are good enough to name a day after.

Council has voted to make June 18 "Carleton University Day", in honor of the university's 50th anniversary.

Jim Watson, city councillor and Car- leton grad, moved the motion.

Watson said the formal designation was made to recognize the contribu- tions Carleton has made to the commu- nity.

" ! wanted to give greater prominence to the university, both to the students and faculty, and to the university itself."

May 28, 1992 The Charlatan 3

More turf troubles with 2,4-D

by David Bartolf

Charlatan Stall

Whether or not herbicides will be sprayed on campus lawns this summer remains a mystery. Members of a com- mittee who reviewed Carleton's herbicide spraying said they are not getting any answers from administration.

In March, after a year of review, the committee recommended a two-year moratorium on herbicide spraying. They also called for the university groundspeople to switch to non-chemi- cal techniques of maintaining campus fields. Activities such as irrigating, aerat- ing the soil, using compost material, add- ing more top soil to grassy areas, or using hardier breeds of grass were suggested by the committee.

In an April 15 letter to Mance Cummings, superintendent of Buildings and Grounds, Spruce Riordon, Carleton VP (Administration), said the committee had fulfilled its purpose in submitting its report and was to be disbanded.

The letter stated that a new standing committee would investigate "the cost of implementing the ad hoc committee's recommendations for a moratorium on the use of herbicides on campus. As well, it will define a review method which will allow us to assess the effectiveness of this or any other approach."

The campus environmental group, OPIRG, has sent two letters to Riordon since the beginning of April asking ad- ministration to follow the old commit- tee's recommendations. Neither letter has had a reply.

Workers at Colonel By Child Care, which runs Carleton's daycare centres, have also written to Riordon and received no response.

Riordon said the committee "will be on its way before long, but membership has not yet been determined." When asked about the committee's starting date, he said he did not know.

"What we intend to do is reconstitute the committee and use this turf manage- ment practice (of not spraying herbi- cides) on an experimental basis in some limited area," said Riordon.

Riordon said the new committee would represent a variety of groups on campus.

He would not say whether or not there would be any spraying done on campus this summer.

"It will be a matter of how the recom- mendations are put in place, but those haven't been yet.

"You can check with Mance Cummings," said Riordon.

Cummings chaired the now-defunct committee, but also would not comment about whether any herbicide will be used this summer.

"We submitted the report to Riordon, you should go back to him," said Cummings.

Jane Beauchamp, an OPIRG co- ordinator, said not knowing if the recom- mendations are to be put in place or if the university is going to stop using herbi- cide, "feels like a waste of a year's effort."

Beauchamp said the time could have been better spent on a campaign of edu- cation and lobbying against further spray- ing.

According to Beauchamp, acampaign, which will include starting a petition to ban campus spraying, will begin this week, unless Riordon speaks up.

Beauchamp described the formation of the original committee as an effort by former VP (Administration) Charles Watt to keep the spraying issue quiet. An on- campus march against spraying, spear- headed by senior residents and backed by OPIRG and Colonel By Child Care work- ers, was to take place in April 1991.

Watt promised that if the march was

called off, administration would set up a committee to examine the university's spraying policies, to prohibit any spray- ing while the committee did its review and to ask the National Capital Commis- sion to stop spraying grassy areas around the canal near Carleton.

"A waste of a year's effort:'

—Jane Beouchamp, OPIRG

Beauchamp added it is ironic Carleton will be hosting an exhibition on environ- mentalism this June, when the university still has not made a commitment to stop spraying herbicides, like 2,4-D.

Wendy Atkin, president of Colonel By Child Care's board of directors, cited the ongoing concern parents have had about the spraying. In 1989, one group of chil- dren had a picnic on the field around the administration building fountain. The

field had been sprayed with herbicides that morning, but no posting or warning had been put up. Centre workers only found out about the spraying afterwards.

Herbicides, like 2,4-D, are harmful to the environment and to animals. It is a very controversial chemical with respect to its effects on humans, but studies have shown that repeated high doses lead to a higher increase of cancer in people. Low doses can cause headaches and nausea.

"That sort of happening is a concern to all of our parents," said Atkin. She has also written to Riordon about the effects of the spray and has not yet received a reply.

Last year, two fields were sprayed dur- ing Watf s promised moratorium. Signs posted on the soccer field and the field by the greenhouse said they were sprayed with 2,4-D and other chemicals. 2,4-D is now banned from use on public property in Ottawa, but Carleton, as a private property, remains exempt from this by-


Committee member Samantha Sheen of CUSA said the committee meetings never made progress. According to Sheen, there have only been debates between the administration and other members of the committee over the safety of 2,4-D. Sheen said administration would bring in evi- dence saying it was acceptable and the others would bring in countering evi- dence.

No progress was made until the com- mittee's final meeting when the recom- mendations were put to a vote and passed because only the administration repre- sentatives voted against them.

Sheen said she saw administration's actions as a means to distract attention away from criticisms of the spraying.

"What they've done by essentially dis- banding one committee is to try to negate the decision that was made, and they're just going to make it look as though it started from scratch," Sheen said.

Student fees on the rise

by Brenda Bouw

Charlatan Staff

Undergraduate students will soon be paying CUSA more money. CUSA Coun- cil has approved increases in both Unicentre fees and health insurance rates for the 1992-93 academic year.

CUSA Finance Commissioner, Rene Faucher, introduced a $20 Unicentre fee in- crease during council's first meeting on May 1 . The decision to raise fees to $50 per student was passed by a 23-1-1 vote in council.

Arts and Social Sciences rep Marcella Munro was the only councillor to vote against the increase.

"Itmay only be $20, " said Munro, "but $20 is a lot when you're a student and you have no money."

Munro said her vote against the fee hike was influenced by the effect the provincial government's $ 1 0 million cut to OSAP funding for 1992-93 will place

on students' wallets.

Munro also said she was opposed to the increase in Unicentre fees because it was not taken to students for a vote. According to Munro, the increases set out by council violate the principle of democ- racy and CUSA's role to represent stu- dents both economically and politically.

Undergraduate students pay two fees to CUSA. CUSA fees pay for the services CUSA offers students and can only be increased by a referendum. Unicentre fees pay for the operating costs and main- tenance of the Unicentre.

The Unicentre fee, however, is not subject to a referendum. It can be increased by a two- thirds majority vote of Council, with the ap- proval of the university's Board of Governors.

Faucher said the fee hikes were neces- sary to offset the problem of poor main- tenance in the Unicentre building, a cost that CUSA is no longer able to absorb in

its budget.

"As F.C., I don't feel the absorbtion of the costs (by CUSA) is a viable solution," said Faucher.

Unicentre building operating expenses have risen 24 per cent this year, accord- ing to Faucher's estimates, and are pro- jected to increase further by 16.9 per cent in 1992-93.

Also during May, CUSA introduced their annual increase to the health insur- ance plan. The cost of health insurance will rise from $44.20 to $50.65 per student in 1992-93, an increase of 14 per cent.

According to Faucher, this year's jump is less than last year's of 28 per cent, and the 1990-91 increase of 39 per cent.

Both Faucher and Shawn Rapley, CUSA president, said the increase is worth it. They agreed that Carleton's health insur- ance plan was one of the best in the province.

Grant money comes through

by Lisa Currie

Charlatan SlaM

On the advice of lawyers, the region of Ottawa-Carleton will follow through on its promised $1 million grant for con- struction projects to Carleton.

November 1991, only weeks before its term ended, the outgoing regional coun- cil decided to grant $2.9 million in sur- plus to four groups, including Carleton and the University of Ottawa. The univer- sities were allotted $ 1 million each. Money was also allotted to the Ottawa Ballet Company and to a drug rehabilitation centre run by the Variety Club.

There was some controversy over the council's decision to grant the money only weeks before the end of its term. Several members of the new council wanted the decision revoked, but were advised by its legal representative that revoking the grant could be grounds for a lawsuit.

Deputy treasurerfor Ottawa-Carleton, Lloyd Russell, said part of the reason the present council decided not to revoke the grant was because the universities had already committed the money to con- struction.

Don McEown, executive assistant to Carleton University president Robin Farquhar, said the possibility of losing the promised money put both universi- ties in an uncomfortable position.

"Carleton had projects already under


construction and the Herzberg addition is in the planning process," McEown said.

But an April 1992 report by the present council confirmed Ottawa-Carleton re- gion would pay the grant in several in- stalments, tiedintofhe needs forbuilding

construction of the two universities.

McEown said the universities are de- lighted with the confirmation of the re- cent grants.

"Noone really wins from a court battle except the lawyers," McEown said.

4 •The Charlatan May 28, 1992


U of O anticipates professor shortage

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by Craig Piche

Charlatan Staff

The University of Ottawa is heading towards the year 2000 with grey hair and empty pockets, according to Marcel Hamelin.

The university's rector says with an aging faculty and no money in the coffers to hire young professors, universities will suffer a severe shortage of educators by the end of the century.

"Due to budgetary restraints, the uni- versity isn't hiring any more. And the situation is the same in all the other universities," said Hamelin, in an inter- view with Le Droit.

While discussing the challenges fac- ing Ottawa, Hamelin said although many aging professors areaboutto retire, young professors aren't getting hired because of budget cuts. As a result many seek em- ployment abroad or do other type of work.

The situation is particularly bleak in the departments of Modem Literature and Religious Studies at Ottawa.

Hamelin said half the professors in the latter department will retire in the next five years. Avoiding a sudden and drastic rum over may be impossible he said.

"We would like to have a plan to gradually replace outgoing professors, but our financial situation doesn't allow

it," he said.

There are currently about 1,000 pro- fessors teaching at the University of Ot- tawa and another 300 clinical professors at the faculty of medicine.

Hamelin is also concerned with the number of female faculty members. About 23 per cent of Ottawa's faculty is female. Hamelin said this is insufficient, even though it is about the same as other universities.

"We would like to have more women in the faculties of science and engineer- ing," he said.

The university is hiring some new pro- fessors, but only as part of a renewed five- year plan to develop French-language

programs and to attract Franco-Ontarian students. The university just completed a similar five-year plan introduced in 1 987.

Despite the budget constraints, the university recently hired 22 new science professors to teach French-language courses, said Hamelin.

Vice-Rector Jean-Michel Beillard said these programs are protected from ad- ministrators determined to cut costs.

"The needs are on-going enough that even if the financing (of the programs) was to run out, their viability is still assured. The worst that can happen is that their implementation would be de- layed," said Beillard.

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College posts assault sites on campus

tav Scott Winnrnup I "

by Scott Wingrove

The Gazette, University ol Wester n Ontario, with files from The Charlatan.

LONDON, ONT. Kesha Salmon, a third-year business student at Fanshawe College, say she's going to be more care- ful on campus.

Salmon, like many female students at Fanshawe, a London college known for its communications program, was re- cently warned that three women students had been sexually assaulted on buses that take students to the college.

She learned this from a notice posted in the women's washroom in the student centre at the college. The poster says at least one of the assaults occurred on the Oxford East run the bus Salmon nor- mally takes to school.

"It's disturbing that I'm on that route, " she said. Another run was also men- tioned on the poster as an assault site.

A male Fanshawe student was arrested in March and charged with three counts of sexual assault. Since then, another sexual assault which allegedly took place before the arrest has been re- ported.

The posters are the initiative of Col- leen Evetts, the college's manager of Eq- uity in Employment and Education. Evetts said posting the notices in the washroom was the only way to get the information out to the students.

"Gone are the days of keeping inci- dents quiet from the college community, for the fear that it will cause paranoia," she said.

On May 21, at Carleton University, a notice was posted on campus by Security notifying women that there has been 11 incidents involving sexual exhibitionism or "flashing" on campus since January 1 , 1992, Some of these incidents involved physical contact, the notice stated. (SEE STORY PAGE THREE)

But at the University of Western On- tario, information about sexual assaults is rarely released. The campus police keep stats on incidents that students report, but few details are given to the campus community.

Rumors are on occasion the result. Last December, during a memorial at Western for the 14 engineering students slain by a gunman at the University of Montreal, a former women's issues com- missioner warned the crowd that she had heard rumors of multiple rapes in cam- pus parking lots.

At Fanshawe, Evetts said that in addi- tion to washroom notices, a memo with the same information was distributed to all department chairpersons to be passed on to faculty and read in all classes.

"In some areas, that had not hap- pened. So in order to ensure that the communication, particularly to the fe- male students, was getting around," Evetts decided to post the notices in college



"Communication to the students gen- erally can be a tricky kind of endeavor," Evetts said, "These kinds of incidents, by and large are not reported."

In the past at Fanshawe, criminal in- cidents of a sexual nature have been dealt with by the college's security de- partment. Now, Evetts deals with each occurrence.

Her notices were also published in Fanshawe's student newspaper. The Interrobang. Ail of the assaults were "in- appropriate and unwanted physical con- tact of a sexual nature," the notices state.

The posters also include information regarding several incidents of exhibition- ism that occurred in late February and early March.

Another incident of a man exposing himself occurred in March after the no- tices were posted. Two women were work- ing in the classroom around 5 p.m., when

a man entered with a stocking over his head and exposed himself. The incident was reported to the police.

Western campus police Sergeant Bob Earle said six exposure incidents have been reported at Western since Septem- ber. Three reports of sexual assault have also been made to campus police this academic year.

Earle said it is difficult to arrest an individual on the charge of indecent ex- posure because the "flasher" must be caught in the act.

Karen Louis Sochaczevski, a counsel- ling intern at Western's Counselling and Career Development office, said acts of exposure are threatening to women.

She said the person witnessing the act "might not think that the exposure will end there," she said, and "fear of an assault was about to happen."

Sochaczevski said she is concerned such incidents are not publicized at Western

and a victim who is not aware of the prevalence of exposure incidents may be reluctant to come forward. (Reprinted with the permission of The Gazette)

Did You Know?

Canadian Universities Travel Serv^ ices Ltd., better known to students as Travel C.U.T.S., made $61,379,000 in 1991.

This makes Travel C.U.T.S., owned by the Canadian Federation of Stu- dents, the 618th largest company in Canada out of 700 corporations, ac- cording to the 1992 edition of The Financial Posfs ranking of Canada's largest corporations.

It is larger than Andres Wines (639th), Playtex Ltd. (652nd) and Maple Leaf Gardens (695th).

May 28, 1992 The Charlatan 5

Wlaw school decided to make edu- cational equity more than a slo- gan, they hired Joanne St. Lewis. In October 1989, St. Lewis designed and began toimplementan educational equity program, which could fundamen- tally change the entire legal system.

St. Lewis says she was interested in becoming Director of Education Equity because the administration of justice does not reflect a respect for the rights of disenfranchised people.

According to St. Lewis, the rights of people on the margins of the legal sys- tem are not adequately guaranteed or protected.

The goal of the program is to make the law faculty more reflective of the Canadian population by admitting more people from identified target groups ~ aboriginal people, persons with disabili- ties, racial and cultural minorities, gays and lesbians, and people from low in- come backgrounds.

Although the program was originally preoccupied with improving recruitment and admissions, St. Lewis has concluded that the reason for the low number of applicants from these groups was not the lack of a pool of eligible candidates, but a problem within the process of deter- mining qualification.

"If you're just crunching GPAs to- gether and the law-school admissions test," says St. Lewis, "you will get a par- ticular type of person.

"Both of those criteria reflect the sys- temic discrimination that applies all the way through society and reflect a gen- eral Eurocentrism of the process. Clearly those two factors have worked quite well to get all-white schools and particularly largely male schools, up until this point."

St. Lewis says she believes the qualifi- cations for admission to law school are a barrier to marginalized people. She says the system ignores qualities which do not show up in academic standing.

According to St. Lewis, law schools need to recognize community work and personal life experience as valid qualifi- cations for entry into law school. If law schools remodel the requirements for admission, they will change who is quali- fied and create a more diverse student population.

"We've tried to address the issue of

by Michael Vickers class by looking at economic disadvan-

Chafiaian siafi tage, or looking at people's experiences

hen the University of Ottawa's because they come from rural communi-

law school decided to make edu- ties, orbecause they come from the North,

or because they've been raised by a sin- gle-parent on welfare for example all of those different things that would bring a different way of seeing their relation- ship to the law."

As a result of St. Lewis' work, each year the student body has changed, with in- creased numbers of people from racial and cultural minorities.

But St. Lewis says it isn't enough to simply set recruitment quotas based on the proportion of a group within society. She argues thata "critical mass" of indi- viduals from a target group must be created within an institution, in order to give the group a strong enough voice to make meaningful structural changes.

"Because our power position hasn't changed . . . that's why I talk about critical mass, that whole idea of having pressure from that community able to flow through the structure so the voice can be heard and hopefully be persua- sive."

The critical mass should constitute at least 25 percent of the institution, St. Lewis says. Otherwise there would be no real change to the structure of the insti- tution.

St. Lewis says the results of this imbal- ance ofpowerin institutions can be seen in the recent incidences of racially-moti- vated violence in Los Angeles and To- ronto.

St. Lewis says the focus of the public and media during the L.A. riots on the few incidences of violence directed to- wards white people shows the power position of Blacks has not improved.



"In the U.S. we (Blacks) are dispro- portionately represented in terms of peo- ple who are in prison, we are also the majority of victims of murders.

"Therefore we should be clear partici- pants in shaping any solutions because we're the people who are getting hurt the most," she says.

She says people must also question how violence is sanctioned by society.

"What we're seeing in L.A. or what we're seeing in Toronto, I think what it raises is the question of criminality and the fundamental issue of who sets the rules," she says. "Who defines what is inappropriate behaviour?"

St. Lewis says a double standard was used to judge both the police officers' and rioters' actions.


by Scott Anderson

Charlalan Slaff

The frustration and anger which erupted throughout North America in the wake of the Rodney King verdict has pushed the issue of racial disparity to the fore- front of political and social agendas.

While police brutality and a farcical judicial system may be the current cata- lyst for protest, there are deeper, under- H| lying problems which I government and vis- I ible minority leaders I have failed to address I in constructive ways.

Social activists I point to the increas- m ing decay and poverty SsHSgStaw* °f tne communities in . . .. - which many visible ^ *" minorities live

JIB North America's inner I cities. They claim this ^^^^^^^Bl is evidence of govern- ment's inaction when it comes to issues of

Over the past 12 years, the Reagan and Bush administrations have been reluctant to invest money into so- cial programs that would offer any real relief to these commu- nities. Their so-called "relief programs" co- incided with their eco- nomic philosophy that a free market- place, not government spending, would fuel recovery and develop- ^ment. They were wrong.

It has becom e prac-

tically impossible for racial minorities living in America's inner cities to have any hope of realizing the coveted Ameri- can Dream of a middle-class lifestyle.

According to Internal Revenue Serv- ice statistics, in 1 989 the top four per cent of wage earners in the U.S. (3.8 million families and individuals) earned $452 billion in wages and salaries - the same as the bottom 51 per cent (49.2 million individuals and families).

While the bottom half of America is not comprised exclusively of racial mi- norities, there is little doubt as to what group is predominantly in the lower bracket of the emerging two-class soci- ety.

The reality is the social safety net programs put forward by government are severely underfunded, understaffed and in many cases, do not directly ad- dress the immediate needs in these com- munities.

Consequently, many of the visible minorities living in America's inner cit- ies have had to contend with inadequate health care, education and employment opportunities. A large number of youth eventually lose hope and drop out of mainstream society. They often enter a world of gang violence and drugs, which in turn leads to the ongoing struggle with law enforcement.

Meanwhile, over $100 billion in U.S. tax revenues that could have been used to help stop the cycle of poverty in inner cities is being used to bail out failed Savings and Loan institutions. In other words, President Bush and the Congress view the problems of a few white, corpo- rate Americans as more immediate than the disparity of the many poor racial minorities.

The problems of racial tension and inequality in America, however, are not exclusively "the system's" fault. Minor- ity leaders have failed, in part, to mobi-

6 -The Charlatan May 28, 1992



"I look at what the police officers do and 1 have no difficulty in saying, not just that the behaviour is wrong and should be punished, but that the behav- iour was criminal.

"I, however, obviously appear to be wrong, because a jury has told me so."

But she points out that Black and Hispanic rioters were also charged under the same legal system for their violent behaviour.

"When I look at L.A. and I look at Toronto, I have a lot of difficulty with the , way in which we will atomize a situation Ito the immediate actions of particular individuals . . . rather than holding accountable those individuals who were part and parcel of the power structure. " Looking at I. A. I say to myself, 'What

is the test, what evidence must I bring forth, as a Black person, to establish police brutality?'"

She says it is vital that Black people and other oppressed groups have access to equity programs, such as the one at the University of Ottawa, in order to combat this systematic racism.

St. Lewis also says she also believes in forming a conscious coalition of differ- ent groups of oppressed people.

"Because there will be people who are not from that community who will be very supportive, now there's a possibility for genuine coalition-building across dif- ferent groups of people who have been in some way disenfranchised."

For St. Lewis a key goal of equity programs is to give people education and skills that will enable them to em- power their communities.

However, St. Lewis cautions that this is also one of the approach's greatest potential pitfalls. Because the values of the educational process are often at odds with those of the student's community, the student may be forced to integrate or assimilate into the values of the domi- nant culture.

"I see a great deal of validity to us gaining access to these positions of power," she says. "The difficulty is how do you do it and retain a connection to your roots and to your original purpose, when the tool you use is one which was forged in the fires of Eurocentrism, and it is that which oppresses you?"

St. Lewis also wonders whether such a programme may ultimately act as a disservice to the community, by co-opt- ing its best and brightest into the status quo.

Have I now 'skimmed-off these in-

credibly dedicated, high-energy people from the community?

"I've placed them in the most vulner- able position in the 'belly of the beasf of status quo power such that we may lose them when we cannot afford to lose even one."

Although the programme at the Uni- versity of Ottawa has been successful St Lewis says there is still a long way to go to achieve a system which would be truly empowering.

Similarprogramshavestartedat other universities, but St. Lewis questions whether the incremental approach taken by most of them will bring the desired results soon enough. The communities they are aimed at are in a state of crisis, she says, and have only a limited amount of time to create change.

St. Lewis says one of the main prob- lems in changing institutions is the con- tinuing invisibility of people from racial and other groups in the ranks of those teaching at universities. In the 20 law faculties across Canada, there is only one Black woman who is a tenured pro- fessor and that appointment only came earlier this academic year.

St. Lewis is adamant that the kind of radical restructuring which has begun at the University of Ottawa is most immedi- ately required in faculties of education.

"Without a transformation of those who educate at all levels of the system to reflect issues of anti-racism, anti-sexism and anti-homophobia ... we will always be in a reactive position where we're trying to do some kind of catch-up in universities or colleges.

"Thatwill never be as good as reform- ing the education system fundamen- tally." Q

-- - - ^ nave i now skimmed-off these in- tally." f


I7i' their siinnm-twc inln r™

lize their supporters into con structive opposition against bi- ased institutions.

This is the age of the public interest group. Corporations, labour groups and foreign in- terests have all learned how to effectively lobby legislators to enact laws that favour them. Protests may stir public opin- ion for a brief period, but mi- nority leaders must nave the capacity to transfer that mass support to the polls at election time, in order to put real pres- sure on government.

Minority leaders have also failed, to a large extent, to teach young people that violence and destruction are not means to a positive solution.

Prominent Black leaders like Rever- end AlSharpton df New York and Demo- cratic politician Reverend (esse Jackson have, in some ways, increased racial tensions. Both are viewed as anti-Jewish, Sharpton for participating in protests against New York Jews and Jackson for, among other things, past references to New York City as "Hymie town". The once powerful civil rights coalition be- tween Blacks and Jews is, unfortunately, a thing of the past.

While the reason for this animosity between Blacks and Jews may be rooted in stereotyping and the economic polar- ity between them, the leadership, in both camps, should not be promoting hatred.

Rational protest and well-planned Political strategies for change have taken Q back seat to looting and pitting racial and ethnic minorities against one an- other. Black-Jewish confrontations in New York City last year and the recent devastation of Koreatown in south-cen- tal L.A. by Black and Latino looters are examples.